Ver. 1. By the whole world, is understood the Roman empire. Wi. — This decree was promulgated in the 752d year of Rome, in the 3970th year of the world, and the 42d year of the reign of Augustus, when there was universal peace, and the temple of Janus remained shut for 12 years. Jans. concord. Evan. — It was the custom among the Jews to be numbered according to their tribes and families. Hence arose the necessity of the journey of the Holy Family to Nazareth. This enrolment probably included the number, as well as the property of each family, that the taxes might be proportioned. Idem. ibid.

Ver. 2. By Cyrinus, or Publius Sulp. Quirinus. Wi. — This was the first census made by Quirinus, governor of Syria: nine years after the birth of Christ, this same Quirinus was charged to make a second, when Judea was reduced to a Roman province, by the deposition and exile of Archelaus.

Ver. 3. Into his own city, i.e. the city of every one's family. Now Joseph and Mary, being both of the family of David, were obliged to go to Bethlehem, the city of David, where by Providence, according to the predictions of the prophets, the Messias was to be born. Wi. — This decree took place by a special providence of the Almighty, that every one might be compelled to go to his own country; and that thereby the Saviour of Israel might more easily escape the snares of the treacherous Herod. Ven. Bede. — This circumstance, moreover, was a public testimony, to be kept in the archives of the country, of the birth and descent of the Messias. Augustus only meant to enumerate his subjects, but among them was numbered his God.

Ver. 4. The evangelist here mentions the city of David, to remind us how exactly that was fulfilled, which God promised to David, that an everlasting king should be born of him: and the reason why the inspired writer was content to mention the relationship between Joseph and David, omitting that of the Blessed Virgin and the royal prophet, was, because in the law it was commanded that persons of the same family should intermarry; hence it is added in the subsequent verse, with Mary, his espoused wife. S. Irenæus hær. l. iii. c. 11.

Ver. 7. In a manger within a stable, or place where beasts were sheltered. And it is the common opinion that an ox and an ass were there at that time. See Baronius, Tillemont, &c. Wi. — O wonderful mystery! O astonishing condescension of a God-man! From his birth he takes upon himself poverty. Had such been his pleasure, Christ might, at his birth, have shaken the heavens by his power, and terrified all nature by his majesty. But these were not the attendants of his coming; for he came not to destroy, but to save; not to display riches, but to teach us a contempt of human grandeur. He therefore condescended not only to become man, but even the vilest of men. Metaphrastes.

Ver. 11. Because the light of life is risen to us, dwelling in the region of the shadow of death. Ven. Bede.

Ver. 12. On the eastern side of the town of Bethlehem, say S. Justin, S. Jerom, &c. there was a cave cut in the side of a rock, in which was a manger used by the people of those environs; so that these shepherds easily understood the angel, who told them they should find him laid in a manger. SS. Jer. Greg. Naz. Cyril, say that they found the child between an ox and an ass, according to the version of the Septuagint. Habac. iii. 2.: You shall find him laid between two beasts. In the place where this crib was, S. Helen built a magnificent church in honour of the blessed Virgin Mary. Ven. Bede says that she built another in honour of the tree shepherds; whence S. Bernard concludes, that there were only three shepherds that came to adore the divine infant in the manger. Tirinus. — It might be necessary to give them notice of this humble appearance of the Messias, to encourage them to go and pay him their homage. Barradius.

Ver. 14. And on earth, peace to men of good will.[1] I had translated, peace to men of his good will, looking upon the sense to be, that a peace and reconciliation were offered, and given to men from the good will and mercy of God. The ordinary Greek copies altogether favour this exposition. And Bellarmine (l. ii, de Verb. D. c. 11.) is so convinced of this sense, that he brings it for an instance of one of those places, in which the true sense of the Latin is to be found by the Greek text; which is many times true: but Bellarmine might not take notice, that several of the best Greek MSS. are conformable to the Latin Vulgate, and have peace to men of good will; as it is also expounded by divers of the ancient Fathers, that peace is offered to men of good will, to those who by the grace of God are disposed to believe and obey the Gospel-doctrine. And upon this, having advised with others, I did not think fit to change the former Rheimish translation. Wi. — The reason why the will is designated in preference to any other power of the soul, is, because the will moves the rest; consequently the goodness or badness of an action depends chiefly on the will. By this also the angels wished to shew, that the peace which Christ came to bring into the world, was the internal peace of our souls, of which the external peace that subsisted under Augustus, was a figure. Nic. de Lyra. — Peace is made on earth, since human nature, before an enemy of God, is now reconciled and united to him by his incarnation. Theophy. — In this hymn of the angels there is a remarkable difference observable in some of the Greek and Latin copies. The latter have it according to this text, men of good will; the former, good will among men, or to men. Eudokia, signifies the gratuitous benevolence of God towards man. So that this sentence seems divided into three parts: glory to God, peace on earth, and good will to men. Jans. conc. Evang. — The birth of Christ giveth not peace of mind, or salvation, but to such as are of good will, because he worketh not our good against our wills, but with the concurrence of our will. S. Aug. quæst. ad Simplic. l. 1. q. 2. t. 4.

Ver. 15. The word which always was, let us see how it is made for us; that which we could not see, when it was the word, let us see because it is made flesh. V. Bede. — See how particularly the Scripture weighs the meaning of every word. The shepherds hastened to see the word, for when the flesh of the Lord is seen, the word is seen, which is the Son. S. Amb.

Ver. 17. They saw this with the eyes of their body, but with their internal eyes they discovered other wonders, viz. that he, who lay there in such great poverty, was their Messias, their great King, and the Son of God. Barradius.

Ver. 19. Mary kept all these things, and compared what was accomplished in her, concerning the Lord, with what had been written of him by the prophets. V. Bede. — She considered in her heart the arguments of faith. S. Ambrose.

Ver. 21. Should be circumcised; which might be done not only in the temple, or in a synagogue, but in any house. Wi. — Many reasons may be alleged why our Saviour submitted to the painful and humbling knife of circumcision: 1. to manifest to the whole world the reality of his human nature, and the difference between his divinity and humanity; 2. to shew he approved of circumcision, which he had instituted; 3. to prove that he was of the seed of Abraham; 4. to teach us humility and obedience, by observing a law to which he was not bound; 5. that by receiving the burthen of the law, he might free those that were under the law, (Gal. iii.); and lastly, that the Jews might have no excuse for rejecting him, because he was uncircumcised. S. Epiph. and Nic. de Lyra.

Ver. 22. Of her purification. The blessed Virgin mother stood not in need of this ceremony, to which she submitted herself, as her Son did to that of circumcision. Wi. — Whence S. Laur. Justin. in his sermon on the purification, very well observes: grace raised the Virgin above the law; humility subjected her to it. Jesus Christ, in subjecting himself to the law of Moses, has left an example to princes and magistrates, to obey their own laws; for then they may expect them to be observed by others, when themselves shew respect to them. Barradius.

Ver. 23. Every male opening the womb.[2] This translation is more conformable to the doctrine of the Fathers, that Christ was born without opening the womb; which Bede calls the doctrine of the Catholic Church. Wi. — See Exod. xiii. 2. and Num. viii. 16.

Ver. 24. This was the offering of the poorer classes.

Ver. 25. A man . . named Simeon, whom some conjecture to have been one of the Jewish priests. — Waiting for the consolation of Israel, for the happy coming of the Messias. — And the Holy Ghost was in him, by the spirit of grace and of prophecy. Wi. — The consolation here expected by Holy Simeon, was the coming of the Messias, and the consequent redemption of mankind from sin and the devil; not a redemption only, as some carnal Jews thought, from the power of temporal enemies. These supposed the Messias was to come in order to raise them in power above all nations, to whom before his coming they had been subject. S. Greg. of Nyssa in Diony. — Many have pretended that Simeon was a priest; the best and oldest interpreters say he was a laic. V.

Ver. 26. And he had received an answer, . . . that he should not see death; i.e. die. Wi.

Ver. 27. And he came by the spirit, or moved by the holy Spirit. Wi.

Ver. 30. Thy salvation; i.e. the Saviour, whom thou hast sent. Wi.

Ver. 31. Before the face of all people; not of Israel only, but also as a light to be revealed to the Gentiles, the spiritual children of Abraham: to whom also the promises were made. Wi.

Ver. 33. In the Greek, Joseph and the mother of Jesus. V.

Ver. 34. Is set for the ruin. Christ came for the redemption and salvation of all men: but Simeon prophesies what would happen in consequence of the wilful blindness and obstinacy of many. Wi. — Not that God sent his Son for the fall of any man; but that many, by their own perverseness, in wilfully refusing to receive and obey him, would take occasion of falling. Ch. — And for a sign which shall be contradicted, to signify that Christ, and his doctrine, should be as it were a mark, or butt, against whom the Jews should discharge the arrows and darts of their malice. Wi. — Hence S. Paul, (2 Cor. ii. 16.) We are to one the odour of death unto death, but to the other the odour of life unto life.

Ver. 35. And thy own soul a sword shall pierce. These words, which figuratively express the grief of the blessed Virgin mother, when present at the death of her Son, are to be taken by way of a parenthesis. — That out of many hearts thoughts may be revealed, and these are to be joined with what went before; to wit, that child shall be a sign of contradiction, set unto the fall and resurrection of many, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed and disclosed; when some shall believe, and others remain in their obstinacy. Wi. — Bede, and many others, understand this of the sharp sorrow, which wounded the soul of the blessed Virgin Mary, at the time of Christ's passion. Barradius. — Carthusianus and Jansenius explain this passage as follows: Behold, this child is placed for a sign that shall be contradicted, which as a sword of most poignant grief will pierce thy soul, O Virgin! But Christ shall be contradicted, that the thoughts of the Jews may be revealed from many hearts, and it may appear who among them are good, and who are wicked and hypocrites. Barradius.

Ver. 36. Anna, a prophetess. She was another witness that Jesus was the Messias, venerable for age, and more for her piety. — And had lived with her husband seven years from her virginity; i.e. had been seven years a wife: and from the death of her husband, had remained always a widow: now 84 years of age: who departed not from the temple, but was constantly there at the times of prayer, with fastings and prayers, serving God day and night. Wi.

Ver. 40. The child grew, and waxed strong, full of wisdom, and (52) increased in wisdom and age. The Arians from this, pretend to prove that Christ was not truly God, who cannot advance or increase in wisdom. The true meaning is, that Jesus, as he advanced in age as man, gave greater marks of his divine wisdom, and discovered himself full of knowledge, wisdom, &c. Wi.

Ver. 41. How can we account for what is related in this verse, that his parents went up every year to Jerusalem, during the childhood of Jesus, when, as we are taught in other parts, his parents did not dare to fix their abode in Jerusalem, for fear of Archelaus: but this, says S. Austin, will not be very difficult to answer; for, it might be easier for them to ascend up to Jerusalem on these particular occasions, without being noticed in so numerous a crowd, and privately return; though it might not be prudent for them to fix their habitation there, lest they might be too much noticed: and, as no one has yet informed us how long Archelaus continued to reign, what S. Luke relates might have taken place after the death of that prince. S. Austin.

Ver. 44. It may be asked how the blessed Virgin and S. Joseph could possibly have come so far without missing him; but we must take notice, that when the people went up to the temple from remote parts of Judea, the men went in one company, and the women in a separate company, whilst the children went in either company indifferently: so that S. Joseph imagined that he was with Mary, his mother, whilst she imagined he was with S. Joseph. Nic. de Lyra.

Ver. 49. I must be about the things that are my Father's? By these words he shewed, that not S. Joseph, but only God, was his father. Wi.

Ver. 50. They understood not, &c. That is, knew not when, or by what means, Christ designed to make himself known to the world. Wi.

Ver. 51. Was subject to them. Astonishing humility! which the Son of God was pleased to teach by his example, as also obedience to parents. Wi. — The evangelist relates nothing of our Saviour from the age of twelve till the age of thirty, except that he was subject to S. Joseph and the blessed Virgin. The divine Spirit shewing by this, that nothing is so great and amiable in Christians, as ready obedience to the directions of their superiors. Barradius. — All children are hereby taught what subjection and obedience is due from them to their parents.

Ver. 52. Not that he was wiser at any future period of his life, than he was at the moment of his conception, but this is said, because he chose to manifest increasing signs of wisdom as he increased in years. — In the same manner also he increased in grace, by displaying, as he advanced in age, the gifts of grace with which he was endowed; and by this excited men to the praise of God, from the consideration of favours God had bestowed upon him; and thus he conduced to the honour of God, and the salvation of men. S. Greg. — The sun, always equally brilliant in itself, is said to increase in splendour, till it has reached its meridian brilliancy.


[1] V. 14. Pax hominibus bonæ voluntatis. The Greek copies, eirhnh, en anqrwpoiV eudokia, hominibus bona voluntas; but the author of the Latin Vulgate must have read, anqrwpoiV eudokiaV, which reading is found in some ancient Greek MSS. in the Alexandrian, that called of Cambridge, and others. The common reading of the Fathers is, bonæ voluntatis, and not bona voluntas; but then some expounded it thus: pas sit hominibus, qui habent bonam voluntatem, scilecet per Dei gratiam. Others thus: sit pax bonæ voluntatis divinæ hominibus; which sense and construction Lucas Brugensis prefers. And what confirms this exposition is, that eudokia, and eudokein, are commonly applied when the will of God is signified; yet sometimes also, eudokia signifies the good will of men; as Philip. i. 15. Rom. x. 1. &c.

[2] V. 23. Omne masculinum adaperiens vulvam, pan arsen dianoigon mhtran, on which words Bede says: quod ait Lucas, adaperiens vulvam, consuetæ nativitatis more loquitur . . . sed juxta fidem Catholicam exiit clauso Virginis utero, &c.


Copyright 1999-2023 Catholic Support Services all rights reserved