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Kingdom of Bavaria
I. POLITICAL CONSTITUTION, AREA, POPULATION
The present Kingdom of Bavaria — named after the German tribe called Boiarii — has formed, since 1871, a constituent part of the German Empire. It is an independent State of the confederation with special rights; its rulers belong to the Wittelsbach dynasty, the head of the Government in 1907 being Prince-Regent Luitpold. In time of peace the king or his representative is the head of the army; in time of war the emperor, as head of all the forces, has, by agreement, the control. As the second state (in size) of the empire Bavaria has six representatives in the Federal Council and forty-eight in the Imperial Parliament (Reichstag), the latter deputies being chosen by direct vote. In its present form Bavaria consists of two parts of unequal size, geographically some distance from each other, on either side of the Rhine. It has an area of 29,283 square miles, and a population (census of 1 December, 1905) of 6,254,372 persons. According to individual declaration of belief 4,608,469 persons, or 70 per cent of the population, belong to the Catholic Church; 1,843,123 persons, or 28.3 per cent of the population, are adherents of the Lutheran and Calvinist confessions; while other religious bodies (Old-Catholics, Irvingites, Mennonites, Methodists, etc.) have but a small following. There are in Bavaria 56,000 Jews, living chiefly at Munich, Nuremberg, and Fürth, who are engaged principally in commercial and industrial pursuits; they form a large proportion of the physicians, lawyers, and judges of the country. The German population of Bavaria is made up as follows: descendants of the Boiarii, living in Upper and Lower Bavaria and in the greater part of the Upper Palatinate; Franconians, a mixture of Rhine Franks, Thuringians, and Slavs, found in the region of the Main and the Redwitz; Swabians, living in the province bearing their name; and the inhabitants of the Palatinate, a mixed race of Roman and German blood having their home on the left bank of the Rhine. The difference of stock is evidenced by the variety of dialects and provincial characteristics. Naturally these distinctions are not so marked in the cities.
Outside the Rhenish Palatinate Bavaria is an elevated, hilly country. It is bounded on the south by the Alps, on the east by the mountains called the Bohemian Forest (Böhmerwald), and on the north by the range called the Franconian Forest (Frankenwald), while the various ranges called Fichtelgebirge, Spessart, and Rhongebirge represent isolated districts of larger or smaller extent. The Rhine Palatinate is divided by spurs of the Vosges into an easterly and a westerly half, both parts having a fruitful soil. The chief rivers are the Danube and the Rhine. The former enters the country at Ulm and leaves it at Passau. Under ordinary conditions it is navigable for large craft below Ratisbon. Its tributaries in Bavaria from the south are the Iller, a stream rich in fish, the Lech, the Isar, and the Inn; from the north its tributaries are the Wörnitz, the Altmühl, the Regen, and the Vils. For a distance of about fifty-three miles the Rhine forms the boundary between the Rhenish Palatinate and Baden. The three Franconian provinces lie in the valley of the Main, a stream bordered by vineyards and much used for commerce beyond Bamberg. Three flourishing Bavarian cities are situated on its banks: Schweinfurt, Würzburg, and Aschaffenburg. The southern tributaries of the Main, which leave Bavarian territory near Ostheim, are the Regnitz and the Tauber; the northern are the Rodach and the Saale. Only a small part of Lake Constance belongs to Bavaria, but there are numerous lakes in Swabia and a still larger number in Upper Bavaria. Many of these bodies of water are noted for their picturesque scenery, such as the Ammersee, Alpsee, Würmsee, Tegernsee, Königssee, and especially Chiemsee, known as the "Lake of Bavaria". It also contains much mineral wealth: iron, coal, granite, basalt, and salt, of which last there is a large yield of excellent quality. There are numbers of mineral springs, some of which are known throughout the world. Farming in lower Bavaria and cattle-breeding in Swabia, Upper Bavaria, and Middle Franconia are the chief occupations, while the wines of Franconia and the Palatinate and the fruit and vegetables of Bamberg have a high reputation. Industrial life centres in Nuremberg, Fürth, Augsburg, and Ludwigshafen. As a centre of art Munich holds, without question, the highest rank in Germany. The railway lines have a length of about 3,700 miles, to which additions are constantly being made.
No expense is spared in advancing education. In 1903-04 the common schools cost over $7,500,000. The Bavarian troops are equipped with the same arms as the other division of the Imperial German army but wear a different uniform. They are commanded by native generals and consist of three army corps which are divided as follows: 23 infantry regiments, 11 cavalry regiments, 14 artillery regiments, 2 chasseur regiments, 3 battalions of pioneers, 3 transportation battalions, and 1 railway battalion. Including all the reserves the Bavarian army numbers over 200,000 men. The annual cost of the army is $20,000.000.
II. EARLY HISTORY
The early history of Bavaria varies according to the province in question; the races that now live peacefully together under the rule of the Wittelsbach dynasty were once constantly engaged in bloody feuds. A thousand years ago the Bavarian domain included what is now Upper and Lower Austria and the Alpine provinces of the Tyrol and Styria. (See AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY.) The Palatinate was united with Bavaria proper through its rulers; on the extinction (1778) of the younger (Bavarian) branch of the Wittelsbach line the elder (Palatinate) branch became the reigning house of electoral Bavaria. Before the changes caused by the French Revolution and the disappearance of the Holy Roman Empire (1803 and 1819) those parts of Franconia and Swabia which now belong to Bavaria enjoyed a more or less independent existence, such as Ansbach-Bayreuth, the Archbishoprics of Würzburg, Bamberg, Eichstätt, Augsburg, etc., the free cities of Augsburg, Nuremberg, Schweinfurt, Kempten, etc., the principalities of Castell and Oettingen, the possessions of the Counts of Orttenburg, Giech, etc. Only the most important periods in the history of the Duchy and, later, Electorate of Bavaria can be touched on in this article.
The Boiarii, apparently, were either related to the Marcomanni or else identical with that people who, after the Romans had been driven out of the region in the fifth century, began to spread from the right bank of the Danube and gradually extended their control as far as the River Lech and deep into the Alpine region. The chiefs of the Boiarii belonged to the family of the Agilolfings who chose Ratisbon at an early date as their capital. Duke Garibald I, who lived in the middle of the sixth century, seems to have had the power of a sovereign. His daughter, Theodelinda, became Queen of the Langobardi. Her brother, Tassilo I, was, however, obliged to acknowledge the supremacy of the Franks which his son, Garibald II, was able to throw off for a time (about 630). But this independence was of short duration. The Franks under Charles Martel again subdued his descendants. When Tassilo II, who had done much to further the spread of Christianity and civilization in the direction of Eastern Europe, sought to regain his lost independence he was deposed and sent to a monastery.
Bavaria now became a Frankish province ruled by representatives of the Frankish king (794). It came into greater prominence when Louis the German, who had received the eastern part of the Frankish kingdom by the Treaty of Verdun (843), made his residence in Bavaria. His grandson Arnulf, Duke of Carinthia, was crowned emperor in 896. One of his relatives, Margrave Leopold, who fell in a battle (906) against the Magyars, is regarded as the first of the line of Seheyren-Wittelsbach. Upon the extinction of the Carlovingian dynasty Arnulf, son of Leopold, claimed the position of a sovereign prince. This involved him in war with Henry I the Saxon, King of Germany, whose partly successful attempt to conquer Arnulf was completed by Otto I. After the deposition of Eberhard I, the elder son of Duke Arnulf (939), Bavaria no longer had native-born rulers but Saxons, Franconians, and members of the Welf family who ruled as vassals of the king with the title of duke. Not until Emperor Frederick I, in 1180, rewarded Otto of Wittelsbach for his courage by granting him Bavaria did a genuine Bavarian ascend the throne of his fathers. Otto and his energetic successors laid the foundation of the future importance of Bavaria.
In 1214 the Rhine Palatinate was united to Bavaria. Louis II (1253-94) was succeeded by his son Louis III (known as Emperor Louis IV of the Holy Roman Empire) who, by an agreement in 1329 at Pavia, took Bavaria proper, leaving to Rudolph, his brother, the Rhine Palatinate. The large possessions which Louis III secured for his family (Holland, Brandenburg, the Tyrol, etc.) were lost to his successors by discord and successive partitions. Albert IV, however, reunited the country into one domain and secured it against further division by his law of 1506. His son William IV (1508-50) and his grandson Albert V (1550-79) prevented Lutheran and Anabaptist doctrines from entering Bavarian territory. During the reign of William V (1579-98) and still more during the reign of Maximilian I (1598-1651), Bavaria stood at the head of the counter-Reformation and the Catholic League. To these two rulers it was due that the progress of the Reformation was checked, and that some of the territory which had been affected by it was restored to the Church. The Emperor Ferdinand II granted Duke Maximilian of Bavaria for his loyalty the electoral dignity (1623). Bavaria paid a bitter price for its new position in the devastations of the Thirty Years' War. Ferdinand Maria (1651-79) sought to restore the prosperity of the country, but affairs were thrown into confusion during the reigns of his son, Maximilian Emanuel (1679-1726), conqueror of the Turks, and of his grandson Charles Albert (1726-45) by the wars of the Spanish and Austrian successions. It was not until the reign of the Elector Maximilian (Joseph) III (1745-77) that order was again restored. During this reign the Jesuits were suppressed (1773).
Maximilian was the last of the younger branch of the Wittelsbach line. After his death the elder (Palatinate) branch of the family succeeded to the throne in the person of the art-loving Charles Theodore (1778-99), under whom a papal nunciature was established at Munich (1785). The last years of Charles Theodore were embittered by many misfortunes. The young French Republic took from him the territory on the other side of the Rhine and he had to endure many humiliations from his subjects. Up to this time Bavaria had been entirely a Catholic country. New conditions arose when Maximilian IV (Joseph) ascended the throne (1799). This ruler was twice married to Protestants; non-Catholics were granted the same political rights as Catholics, and Lutheran services allowed at the capital. The Government proceeded with severity against all forms of Catholic religious life. The number of churches which were dismantled or profaned at this time is hardly credible; treasures of art of earlier days were sold for a mere pittance or shamefully treated; whole wagonloads of books and documents were burned or thrown into the river; professorial positions filled by avowed opponents of all religions; and an extravagant and frivolous luxury became the fashion at Court. In 1805 Bavaria entered into an alliance with Napoleon against Austria and Russia. In return for this the victorious Corsican made Bavaria a kindgom (1 January, 1806). As a member of the Rhenish Confederation Maximilian (Joseph) IV fought against Prussia in 1806, against Austria in 1809, and against Russia in 1812. Thirty thousand Bavarian troops died in Russia, victims of the climate or of encounters with the Cossacks. After the battle of Leipzig Bavaria joined the Allies at the right moment, so that it was able to retain the greater part of its territory. After the chancellor, Count von Montgelas, had retired form office (2 February, 1817) efforts were made to restore former conditions and that same year a Concordat, which is still operative, was made with the Roman Curia; the next year the king granted a constitution which has produced good results in every respect.
During the reign of the King Louis I (1825-48) the Church prospered greatly; old cathedrals were restored; new churches and monasteries founded; and painters and sculptors came in large number to Munich where they found profitable employment. The colossal figure of Bavaria, the Hall of Fame, the Walhalla, the Hall of Freedom, and the basilica of St. Boniface keep alive the memory of Louis I, the greatest ruler in the history of Bavaria. The revolutionary movement of 1848 compelled Louis to abdicate. His son, Maximilian II (1848-64), a well-meaning but weak ruler, did much to further learning, especially in the domain of history; he was not fortunate, however, in the men he selected to fill professorships and on this account lost popularity with his Catholic subjects. His successor, the visionary Louis II (1864-86), ascended the throne at the age of eighteen. The civil war of 1866 obliged Bavaria to make great sacrifices. Four years later the Bavarian army took an honourable part in the Franco-German war, and in 1871 Bavaria became a member of the new German Empire. During the reign of Louis II special encouragement was given to architecture and industrial art. The growing insanity of the king necessitated the appointment of Prince Leopold as "regent of the kingdom", and not long after Louis met his death, in a manner never clearly explained, in the Starnbergersee. As his brother Otto was mentally incapable of ruling, Leopold (b. 12 March, 1821) continued in his office of regent. Bavaria has prospered greatly under his wise rule; his grandson Leopold, assures the succession in his line.
III. INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY
The Christian faith was probably first introduced into Bavaria, both on the Danube and on the Rhine, by Roman soldiers and merchants. [Cf. Huber, "Geschichte der Einführung und Verbreitung des Christenthums in Südosten Deutschlands" (Salzburg, 1874-75), 4 vols.; Hefele, "Geschichte der Einführung des Christenthums im sudwestlichen Deutschland" (Tubingen, 1837).] In the earliest ages of the Church Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg) was famous on account of the martyrdom of St. Afra and her companions; Ratisbon had also its confessors and the same may be said of Speyer. But it was not until the end of the German migrations and the establishment of more orderly conditions in the Merovingian-Carlovingian Empire that Christianity took firm root. As is well known, at first Irish, and later Frankish and Anglo-Saxon missionaries sowed the seed of the Gospel in the hearts of the rude warriors whose life until then had been given to fighting, hunting, gambling, and drinking. Among these missionaries were: St. Kilian and his pupils Colonat (Coloman) and Totnan at Würzburg; in the Alpgau region St. Magnus; at Ratisbon and Freising St. Rupert, St. Emmeram, and St. Corbinian. Stricter regulations were introduced by Winfrid (St. Boniface) who is in truth entitled to the name of the "Apostle of the Germans". The Dioceses of Freising, Ratisbon, Passau, Würzburg, and Eichstätt were either established or reorganized, while the founding of monasteries made it possible to train the priesthood properly and to raise the spiritual and moral level of the laity. When Boniface was created Archbishop of Mainz (747) Augsburg and Constance became his suffragans, having previously belonged, respectively, to Aquileia and Besancon. After Charlemagne had overthrown the native ruling family, the Agilolfings, Pope Leo III erected (798) the new province of Salzburg to which Ratisbon, Freising, Passau, and Seben (Brixen) in what is not the Tyrol, were attached. But the first mentioned dioceses together with Neuburg, which in a short time disappeared, were left dependent on Mainz. With some changes of names and boundaries these are still in existence. The Diocese of Bamberg, later formed from the existing provinces, was not a suffragan of Mainz but was directly dependent on the Apostolic See. The small Diocese of Chiemsee, founded in 1206, was always dependent on Salzburg; it was suppressed at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
IV. ECCLESIASTICAL DIVISIONS
The present ecclesiastical division of Bavaria rest upon the Bull of Circumscription issued by Pope Pius VII, 1 April, 1818, and made public, 23 September, 1821. According to this Bavaria is divided into the two church provinces of Munich-Freising and Bamberg; the first archdiocese has for suffragans Augsburg, Passau, and Ratisbon; the suffragans of the second are Würzburg, Speyer, and Eichstätt. The Ministry of the Interior for Worship and Education has charge of the interests of the Crown and State in their relations to the Catholic Church of the country; this ministry is the chief State guardian of the various religious and charitable endowments and is aided therein by the civil authorities of the governmental districts. A court of administration has been in existence since 1878 which has control over various matters relating to religious societies (among others, the religious training of children). Cf. Silbernagl, "Verfassung und Verwaltung sämmtlicher Religionsgenosssenschaften in Bayern" (4th ed. Ratisbon, 1900); Schecht, "Bayerns Kirchenprovinzen, ein Ueberblick uber Geschichte und gegenwartigen Bestand der katholischen Kirche im Königreich Bayern" (Munich, 1902).
The boundaries of the diocese do not agree with the boundaries of the political division except in the case of Würzburg (Lower Franconia) and of Speyer (Rhine Palatinate). The Archdiocese of Bamberg extends across Bavaria from Wurtemberg to Bohemia and Saxony; the territory of the suffragan Diocese of Würzburg stretches beyond the boundaries of the country. Eichstätt includes parts of Middle Franconia, the Upper Palatinate, Upper Bavaria, and Swabia. Ratisbon is the largest diocese; it includes not only the greater part of the Upper Palatinate but also parts of Upper and Lower Bavaria, as well as Upper Franconia. The Archdiocese of Munich-Freising embraces besides the greater part of Upper Bavaria a part of Lower Bavaria, chiefly included in the suffragan Diocese of Passau. The Diocese of Augsburg includes the whole of Swabia and the western judicial districts of Upper Bavaria; in the north it extends well into Middle Franconia.
V. CHURCH STATISTICS
According to the "Zeitschrift des königlichen bayerischen statistischen Bureau" (1906, nos. 2 and 3) the Catholic population of the various districts was as follows: —
In the Rhine Palatinate, Upper Franconia, and especially in Middle Franconia the non-Catholic population is decidedly in the majority, namely: Rhine Palatinate, 479,694; Upper Franconia, 362,519; Middle Franconia, 623,546. In Upper Bavaria, Lower Franconia, and Swabia the Protestants number over 1000,000 persons, while in the Upper Palatinate the figures are hardly half as large. In Lower Bavaria there are not over 10,000 non-Catholics. Rapid growth is reported in the Catholic parishes of Nuremberg (90,000), Augsburg (70,000), Erlangen, Schweinfurt, and Memmingen; the Protestant parishes have increased in population in Munich (80,000), Würzburg (15,000), Aschaffenburg, Ingolstadt, and Forchheim; while in the Catholic provinces Protestant churches and chapels are rapidly springing up. The same can hardly be said of Catholic churches in the Protestant districts, although more has been done in this direction lately than in former years and a few parishes like Wunsiedel, Hof, and Weissenburg here and there possess creditable churches. The establishment of the Boniface Verein might have proved very helpful in this respect for King Louis I (founder of the Ludwig-Mission Verein, which is exclusively Bavarian) has, in spite of all efforts, prevented its establishment in the kingdom.
Every diocese has a cathedral chapter which, according to the Concordat, besides choir-service acts as a council for the bishop. These chapters include a provost, dean, a number of canons, and curates. In Munich, besides the chapter there is a collegiate foundation of court preachers (St. Cajetan) similarly organized. At the close of 1904 there were 3,022 parishes serviced by 3,144 parish priests or curates, and 2,578 vicars and chaplains; there were also 1,985 regular clergy (Benedictines, Franciscans, Carmelites, Capuchins) living in 86 monasteries and hospices. The order for women had at that date 12,586 members in 79 houses and 1,087 dependencies. With a few exceptions the female religious devote themselves to teaching and nursing. There are in Bavaria over 1,000 Protestant parishes with 1,400 pastors and assistant preachers. In 1903 the Catholic Church funds, including real estate, amounted to about $42,500,000; the funds of the Protestant denominations to $5,000,000. As the revenues from the church funds are often not sufficient to keep the church buildings, etc., in repair, a number of cities have decided to impose a church tax, which so far has been moderate. [Cf. Geiger, "Taschenkalender fur den katholischen Klerus" (Ratisbon, 1907), as to the salaries, pensions, and ranking of the clergy.]
VI. EDUCATION AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS
The school system consists of public schools, continuation and technical schools, gymnasia with classical courses, Realgymnasia (no Greek), Realschulen (high-schools without Latin and Greek), Oberrealschulen (gymnasia with no Latin or Greek, which prepare for the technical schools), commercial schools, seminaries for teachers, lyceums, 3 universities, a technical high-school, etc. Except in rare cases the primary schools are chiefly denominational. The middle and high-schools are used by all denominations. Religious instruction is provided for these schools as well as for the primary ones. The universities at Munich and Würzburg have Catholic theological faculties. There is at Munich a seminary for the training of priests called the Georgianum and the provinces have similar institutions, generally in connection with lyceums. Following the directions of the Council of Trent there are in all the diocese seminaries for boys (petits séminaires) which are intended to prepare youths without means to study in the gymnasia. In Munich the total number of university instructors is 250; in Würzburg, 158; in Erlangen, 100; in the technical high-school, 100. In the other institutions the number of teachers is correspondingly smaller.
The attendance of students at Munich is between 5,000 and 6,000; at Würzburg, 1,400. The students at the technical high-school number about 3,000; the academy of fine arts and the academy of music have each 300 students. In 1904 the lyceums had about 1,000 matriculated students. Some of the gymnasia, such as that of St. Stephen at Augsburg and those at Metten and Munnerstadt, are in charge of members of the regular orders (Benedictines and Augustinians). The majority of the professors are, however, laymen. In Bavaria for various reasons relatively more Protestants than Catholics study the higher branches, consequently the non-Catholic professors nearly everywhere equal in number those of the Catholic Faith. This condition of affairs has been somewhat changed by the labours of the Albertus-Magnus Verein as well as by the work of the associations and leagues of Catholic students. Efforts have also been made to increase the number of progymnasia (without higher classes) in certain Catholic districts; the Protestant districts are better equipped with such schools.
Bavaria is well supplied with institutions for the care of the sick, the crippled, children, and old people. Many of these foundations are largely endowed and date back to the earlier centuries. In the Catholic benevolent institutions members of the religious orders of both sexes are active; the Protestant institutions are served by deaconesses. There are also institutions in which both faiths are represented, as the hospital at Augsburg, where patients of both denominations are cared for by Catholic and Protestant sisters. At Munich there are only sisters of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, and at Nuremberg deaconesses, although in both places the percentage of patients of other faiths is large. The clergy of the different faiths exercise their office undisturbed in the hospitals of both cities. Of the other humanitarian associations mention should be made of the Gesellenverein which gives travelling journeymen-mechanics an opportunity for further education. In nearly all the larger towns it has lodging-houses and in a few places large, well-equipped homes. Workingmen's Unions endeavour to counteract the tendencies of the Social Democrats; citizens' and voters' associations strive to send to the Bavarian as well as to the Imperial Parliament representatives of pronouncedly Christian principles.
VII. CIVIL STATUS OF THE CHURCH
The relations of Church and State are settled in all important points by the Concordat and the Constitution [cf. Silbernagl, op. cit.; Idem. "Lehrburh des katholischen Kirchenrechts" (Ratisbon, 1903), 4 vols.; Girón y Arcas, "La situación jurídica de la Iglesia en los diversos estados de Europa y de América" (Madrid, 1905)]. Although the promises made the Holy See were not kept in all particulars, for instance in the early seventies of the nineteenth century, yet, taken altogether, conditions are satisfactory; this is owing largely to the strong religious feeling of the reigning dynasty, once more thoroughly Catholic. The Catholic Church has, however, no special privileges. It is on the same footing as the Lutheran, the Reformed, and the Greek schismatics.
Parishes under the jurisdiction of monasteries, as in Austria, are not known in Bavaria. Where members of the religious orders assume pastoral functions, it is only by way of substitution; in these cases they receive the same governmental support as do the secular clergy. The funds of the Church are liable to taxation as other funds. No concession or mitigation is granted. Priests are not obliged to sit as lay assessors, nor to act as jurors, nor to be guardians of minors. Military service is not obligatory on theological students, at least, if when the army is mobilized, they have been ordained subdeacons. In this case they are employed as nurses. The civil code has limited ecclesiastical jurisdiction in matters of marriage, but Catholics still respect the teaching of the Church, especially that death alone can dissolve marriage. A serious question is the great increase of mixed marriages, especially in the large cities, and the consequent Protestant education of children. Owing to various considerations, the evil has not been combated as vigorously as it should be. Prisons and reformatories are, as a rule, visited by clergymen of all faiths, but full provison is made for the pastoral supervision of Catholic prisoners. Prisoners condemned to death are accompanied by priests to the scaffold. Gifts and testamentary bequests for religious and benevolent objects are frequent. They are made under the regulation of the civil code by which any association that has given proper notification to the authorities is regarded as a person in the sense of the law. In the cities the cemeteries belong, as a rule, to the civil community, but nearly everywhere in the country they are part of the parish and are used in common by the Christian confessions. Cremation is not permitted in Bavaria although there is an agitation in its favour.
Those desiring more detailed information are referred to the following authorities: Hopf, "Bayerische Geschichte in Zeittafeln" (Nuremberg, 1865); Denk and Weiss, "Unser Bayerland" (Munich, 1906); Riezler, "Geschichte Bayerns" (Gotha, 1878, 1903), 6 vols.; Döberl, "Entwickelungsgeschichte Bayerns" (Munich, 1906), 1 vol., extending to 1648. A reliable authority on the Wittelsbach dynasty is: Hautle, "Genealogie des erlauchten Stammhauses Wittelsbach" (Munich, 1870). Among the authorities for the Rhine Palatinate are: Häusser, "Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz" (Heidelberg, 1845), 2 vols.; Remling, "Geschichte der Bischöfe zu Speyer" (Mainz, 1852), 4 vols.; Hilgard, "Urkendenbuch zur Geschichte der Stadt Speyer" (Strasburg, 1885); Molitor "Urkendebuch bezüglich zur Geschichte der Stadt Zweibrücken" (Zweibrucken, 1888). For the history of Franconia: Stein, "Geschichte Frankens" (Schweinfurt, 1883-86), 2 vols. For the history of Swabia: Braun, "Geschichte der Bischofe von Augsburg" (Augsburg, 1813), 4 vols.; Steichele, "Das Bisthum Augsburg, historisch und statistisch beschrieben" (Augsburg, 1864-94), 6 vols., continuation by Schröder; Baumann, "Geschichte des Algäu" (Kempten, 1880-94), 3 vols.