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Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over 16,000,000 inhabitants. From 1866 until 1876 Japan formed only one vicariate Apostolic administered by Mgr. Petitjean, the first vicar Apostolic of the country (1866-1884). In 1876 it was divided into two vicariates; that of south Japan, extending from Biwa Lake to the Loochoo Islands, with Mgr. Petitjean at Osaka, and that of North Japan, comprising the northern provinces from Biwa Lake to the Kurile Islands, ruled by Mgr. Osouf (1876-1906), the new vicar Apostolic, residing in Tokio. In 1891 Leo XIII established the ecclesiastical hierarchy in Japan, and erected the Diocese of Hakodate out of the eight most northern provinces ad the Yezo, Sado, and Kurile Islands. The same year Mgr. Osouf was created Archbishop of Tokio, with the Bishops of Nagasaki, Osaka, and Hakodate as his suffragans. When, in 1866, Mgr. Petitjean visited the territory of the future Archdiocese of Tokio, he found only two missionaries at Yokohama, where they had built a church (1862) especially for the use of foreigners, Japanese converts numbering on a few dozens. The actual expansion took place during the thirty years of Mgr. Osouf's administration. It was also Mgr. Osouf who erected the cathedral of Tokio (1878), and was the first envoy of the pope to the mikado, to whom Leo XIII, 12 Sept., 1855, had him present an autographic letter. The archdiocese numbers (1911) one archbishopric, Mgr. Bonne, 27 missionaries, 2 native priests, 23 catechists and 9858 Catholics. Tokio has 4186 Catholics divided into six parishes, while Yokohama, the cradle of the mission, besides the parish for foreigners, who number 492, has another church for the Japanese, who number 1213. In different towns and villages there are 50 stations provided with chapels or oratories. Until lately a great many of these parishes and stations had their parochial schools, which, however, had all to be closed for want of means. Besides their ordinary work the missionaries direct a seminary for native priests, two homes for Catholic students, an industrial school for destitute boys (69), an asylum for the aged and homeless, and a hospital with 74 lepers. They also publish two monthly magazines. Engaged in charitable, educational, and mission work are: 42 Brothers of Mary, of whom 9 are Japanese; six Jesuit Fathers, of whom one is Japanese; four Fathers of the Divine Word; 48 Ladies of St. Maur (12 Japanese); 23 Sisters of St. Paul (4 Japanese); and 21 Ladies of the Sacred Heart. The chronological order of their work is as follows: in 1873 the Ladies of St. Maur founded in Yokohama an asylum for destitute girls (236 inmates); an academy for foreigners (1874); and a high school for Japanese (1899). In Tokio they founded an academy (1887), and a foreign language and music school for girls of the highest nobility (1898), and in Shizuoko another high school (1903). The total number of pupils is 947. The Sisters of St. Paul established in Tokio (1881) an asylum for destitute girls (108 inmates), an academy for foreign girls, and another one for Japanese. The total number of their pupils is 477. The Brothers of Mary direct in Tokio a college (1888) with 830 pupils belonging to the best families, and in Yokohama a commercial school for foreigners (1899) with 106 pupils. The Ladies of the Sacred Heart in Tokio have charge of an academy for girls of the highest classes, both foreign and Japanese (1908). Already they have 121 pupils. The Jesuit Fathers arrived in Tokio in 1908, with the intention of starting a Catholic university. Finally, in 1909, Mgr. Mugabure, coadjutor (1902) and successor of Mgr. Osouf (1906-10), entrusted four of the western provinces to the care of the Fathers of the Divine Word, residing in Kanazawa. In 1911 the number of baptisms were 1383; marriages, 83; burials, 1149; confirmations 452; Easter Communions, 3512.