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King of Juda, placed variously, 741-726 B.C., 744-728, 748-727, 724-709, 734- 728. It seems to be certain that Theglathphalasar's first expedition against Damascus mentioned in the life of Achaz fell in 733 B.C., and the second in 731. Owing to his idolatry (IV K., xvi, 3, 4, II Par., xxviii, 24), Achaz was conquered first by Rasin, King of Syria, and then by Phacee, King of Israel (II Par., xxviii, 5; IV K., xvi, 6). Now, Rasin and Phacee made an alliance in order to dethrone the house of David in Juda, and to make the son of Tabeel king (Is., vii, 26). The prophet Isaias offers to Achaz God's aid with the promise of safety in case of belief, but with the threat of punishment in case of unbelief (Is., vii, 1221). Achaz is unbelieving, seeks help from Theglathphalasar, offering at the same time rich presents from the temple treasury (IV K., xvi, 7, 8). The king of the Assyrians takes Damascus, afflicts Israel (IV K., xv, 29; xvi, 9), but reduces Juda to the necessity of buying its freedom (IV K., xvi, 17; II Par., xxviii, 20). Achaz was not improved by this affliction, but he introduced into the temple an altar modelled after that at Damascus (IV K., xvi, 14 sq.; II Par., xxviii, 2225). On account of the king's sin Juda was also oppressed by the Edomites and the Philistines (II Par., xxviii, 17 sq.).
RENARD in VIG, Dict. de la Bible (Paris, 1895); PEAKE in HASTINGS, Dict. of the Bible (New York, 1903); HAGEN, Lexicon Biblicum (Paris, 1905).