Holy Rule Of Saint Benedict
Brethren, the Holy Scripture crieth to us saying: "Every one that
exalteth himself shall be humbled; and he that humbleth himself shall
be exalted" (Lk 14:11; 18:14). Since, therefore, it saith this, it
showeth us that every exaltation is a kind of pride. The Prophet
declareth that he guardeth himself against this, saying: "Lord, my
heart is not puffed up; nor are my eyes haughty. Neither have I walked
in great matters nor in wonderful things above me" (Ps 130:1).
What then? "If I was not humbly minded, but exalted my soul; as a child
that is weaned is towards his mother so shalt Thou reward my soul" (Ps
Hence, brethren, if we wish to reach the greatest height of humility,
and speedily to arrive at that heavenly exaltation to which ascent is
made in the present life by humility, then, mounting by our actions, we
must erect the ladder which appeared to Jacob in his dream, by means of
which angels were shown to him ascending and descending (cf Gen 28:12).
Without a doubt, we understand this ascending and descending to be
nothing else but that we descend by pride and ascend by humility. The
erected ladder, however, is our life in the present world, which, if
the heart is humble, is by the Lord lifted up to heaven. For we say
that our body and our soul are the two sides of this ladder; and into
these sides the divine calling hath inserted various degrees of
humility or discipline which we must mount.
The first degree of humility, then, is that a man always have the fear
of God before his eyes (cf Ps 35:2), shunning all forgetfulness and
that he be ever mindful of all that God hath commanded, that he always
considereth in his mind how those who despise God will burn in hell for
their sins, and that life everlasting is prepared for those who fear
God. And whilst he guardeth himself evermore against sin and vices of
thought, word, deed, and self-will, let him also hasten to cut off the
desires of the flesh.
Let a man consider that God always seeth him from Heaven, that the eye
of God beholdeth his works everywhere, and that the angels report them
to Him every hour. The Prophet telleth us this when he showeth God thus
ever present in our thoughts, saying: "The searcher of hearts and reins
is God" (Ps 7:10). And again: "The Lord knoweth the thoughts of men"
(Ps 93:11) And he saith: "Thou hast understood my thoughts afar
off" (Ps 138:3). And: "The thoughts of man shall give praise to
Thee" (Ps 75:11). Therefore, in order that he may always be on his
guard against evil thoughts, let the humble brother always say in his
heart: "Then I shall be spotless before Him, if I shall keep myself
from iniquity" (Ps 17:24).
We are thus forbidden to do our own will, since the Scripture saith to
us: "And turn away from thy evil will" (Sir 18:30). And thus, too, we
ask God in prayer that His will may be done in us (cf Mt 6:10). We are,
therefore, rightly taught not to do our own will, when we guard against
what Scripture saith: "There are ways that to men seem right, the end
whereof plungeth into the depths of hell" (Prov 16:25). And also when
we are filled with dread at what is said of the negligent: "They are
corrupted and become abominable in their pleasure" (Ps 13:1). But
as regards desires of the flesh, let us believe that God is thus ever
present to us, since the Prophet saith to the Lord: "Before Thee is all
my desire" (Ps 37:10).
We must, therefore, guard thus against evil desires, because death hath
his station near the entrance of pleasure. Whence the Scripture
commandeth, saying: "Go no after thy lusts" (Sir 18:30). If, therefore,
the eyes of the Lord observe the good and the bad (cf Prov 15:3) and
the Lord always looketh down from heaven on the children of men, to see
whether there be anyone that understandeth or seeketh God (cf Ps
13:2); and if our actions are reported to the Lord day and night by
the angels who are appointed to watch over us daily, we must ever be on
our guard, brethren, as the Prophet saith in the psalm, that God may at
no time see us "gone aside to evil and become unprofitable" (Ps
13:3), and having spared us in the present time, because He is kind
and waiteth for us to be changed for the better, say to us in the
future: "These things thou hast done and I was silent" (Ps 49:21).
The second degree of humility is, when a man loveth not his own will,
nor is pleased to fulfill his own desires but by his deeds carrieth our
that word of the Lord which saith: "I came not to do My own will but
the will of Him that sent Me" (Jn 6:38). It is likewise said:
"Self-will hath its punishment, but necessity winneth the crown."
The third degree of humility is, that for the love of God a man subject
himself to a Superior in all obedience, imitating the Lord, of whom the
Apostle saith: "He became obedient unto death" (Phil 2:8).
The fourth degree of humility is, that, if hard and distasteful things
are commanded, nay, even though injuries are inflicted, he accept them
with patience and even temper, and not grow weary or give up, but hold
out, as the Scripture saith: "He that shall persevere unto the end
shall be saved" (Mt 10:22). And again: "Let thy heart take courage, and
wait thou for the Lord" (Ps 26:14). And showing that a faithful man
ought even to bear every disagreeable thing for the Lord, it saith in
the person of the suffering: "For Thy sake we suffer death all the day
long; we are counted as sheep for the slaughter" (Rom 8:36; Ps
43:22). And secure in the hope of the divine reward, they go on
joyfully, saying: "But in all these things we overcome because of Him
that hath loved us" (Rom 8:37). And likewise in another place the
Scripture saith: "Thou, O God, hast proved us; Thou hast tried us by
fire as silver is tried; Thou hast brought us into a net, Thou hast
laid afflictions on our back" (Ps 65:10-11). And to show us that we
ought to be under a Superior, it continueth, saying: "Thou hast set men
over our heads" (Ps 65:12). And fulfilling the command of the Lord
by patience also in adversities and injuries, when struck on the one
cheek they turn also the other; the despoiler of their coat they give
their cloak also; and when forced to go one mile they go two (cf Mt
5:39-41); with the Apostle Paul they bear with false brethren and
"bless those who curse them" (2 Cor 11:26; 1 Cor 4:12).
The fifth degree of humility is, when one hideth from his Abbot none of
the evil thoughts which rise in his heart or the evils committed by him
in secret, but humbly confesseth them. Concerning this the Scripture
exhorts us, saying: "Reveal thy way to the Lord and trust in Him" (Ps
36:5). And it saith further: "Confess to the Lord, for He is good,
for His mercy endureth forever" (Ps 105:1; Ps 117:1). And the
Prophet likewise saith: "I have acknowledged my sin to Thee and my
injustice I have not concealed. I said I will confess against myself my
injustice to the Lord; and Thou hast forgiven the wickedness of my
sins" (Ps 31:5).
The sixth degree of humility is, when a monk is content with the
meanest and worst of everything, and in all that is enjoined him
holdeth himself as a bad and worthless workman, saying with the
Prophet: "I am brought to nothing and I knew it not; I am become as a
beast before Thee, and I am always with Thee" (Ps 72:22-23).
The seventh degree of humility is, when, not only with his tongue he
declareth, but also in his inmost soul believeth, that he is the lowest
and vilest of men, humbling himself and saying with the Prophet: "But I
am a worm and no man, the reproach of men and the outcast of the
people" (Ps 21:7). "I have been exalted and humbled and confounded"
(Ps 87:16). And also: "It is good for me that Thou hast humbled me,
that I may learn Thy commandments" (Ps 118:71,73).
The eighth degree of humility is, when a monk doeth nothing but what is
sanctioned by the common rule of the monastery and the example of his
The ninth degree of humility is, when a monk withholdeth his tongue
from speaking, and keeping silence doth not speak until he is asked;
for the Scripture showeth that "in a multitude of words there shall not
want sin" (Prov 10:19); and that "a man full of tongue is not
established in the earth" (Ps 139:12).
The tenth degree of humility is, when a monk is not easily moved and
quick for laughter, for it is written: "The fool exalteth his voice in
laughter" (Sir 21:23).
The eleventh degree of humility is, that, when a monk speaketh, he
speak gently and without laughter, humbly and with gravity, with few
and sensible words, and that he be not loud of voice, as it is written:
"The wise man is known by the fewness of his words."
The twelfth degree of humility is, when a monk is not only humble of
heart, but always letteth it appear also in his whole exterior to all
that see him; namely, at the Work of God, in the garden, on a journey,
in the field, or wherever he may be, sitting, walking, or standing, let
him always have his head bowed down, his eyes fixed on the ground, ever
holding himself guilty of his sins, thinking that he is already
standing before the dread judgment seat of God, and always saying to
himself in his heart what the publican in the Gospel said, with his
eyes fixed on the ground: "Lord, I am a sinner and not worthy to lift
up mine eyes to heaven" (Lk 18:13); and again with the Prophet: "I am
bowed down and humbled exceedingly" (Ps 37:7-9; Ps 118:107).
Having, therefore, ascended all these degrees of humility, the monk
will presently arrive at that love of God, which being perfect, casteth
out fear (1 Jn 4:18). In virtue of this love all things which at first
he observed not without fear, he will now begin to keep without any
effort, and as it were, naturally by force of habit, no longer from the
fear of hell, but from the love of Christ, from the very habit of good
and the pleasure in virtue. May the Lord be pleased to manifest all
this by His Holy Spirit in His laborer now cleansed from vice and sin.