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Enchiridion On Faith, Hope and Love
by Saint Augustine


CHAPTER V

THE KINDS AND DEGREES OF ERROR

16. This being the case, when that verse of Maro's gives us pleasure,

"Happy is he who can understand the causes of things,"28

it still does not follow that our felicity depends upon our knowing the causes of the

great physical processes in the world, which are hidden in the secret maze of

25This refers to Aristotle's well-known principle of "the excluded middle."

26Matt. 7:18.

27Cf. Matt. 12:33.

28Virgil, Georgios, II, 490.


nature,

"Whence earthquakes, whose force swells the sea to flood,

so that they burst their bounds and then subside again,"29

and other such things as this.

But we ought to know the causes of good and evil in things, at least as far as

men may do so in this life, filled as it is with errors and distress, in order to avoid

these errors and distresses. We must always aim at that true felicity wherein

misery does not distract, nor error mislead. If it is a good thing to understand the

causes of physical motion, there is nothing of greater concern in these matters

which we ought to understand than our own health. But when we are in ignorance

of such things, we seek out a physician, who has seen how the secrets of heaven and

earth still remain hidden from us, and what patience there must be in unknowing.

17. Although we should beware of error wherever possible, not only in great

matters but in small ones as well, it is impossible not to be ignorant of many things.

Yet it does not follow that one falls into error out of ignorance alone. If someone

thinks he knows what he does not know, if he approves as true what is actually

false, this then is error, in the proper sense of the term. Obviously, much depends

on the question involved in the error, for in one and the same question one naturally

prefers the instructed to the ignorant, the expert to the blunderer, and this with

good reason. In a complex issue, however, as when one man knows one thing and

another man knows something else, if the former knowledge is more useful and the

latter is less useful or even harmful, who in this latter case would not prefer

ignorance? There are some things, after all, that it is better not to know than to

know. Likewise, there is sometimes profit in error--but on a journey, not in

morals.30 This sort of thing happened to us once, when we mistook the way at a

crossroads and did not go by the place where an armed gang of Donatists lay in wait

to ambush us. We finally arrived at the place where we were going, but only by a

roundabout way, and upon learning of the ambush, we were glad to have erred and

gave thanks to God for our error. Who would doubt, in such a situation, that the

erring traveler is better off than the unerring brigand? This perhaps explains the

meaning of our finest poet, when he speaks for an unhappy lover:

"When I saw [her] I was undone,

and fatal error swept me away,"31

for there is such a thing as a fortunate mistake which not only does no harm but

actually does some good.

But now for a more careful consideration of the truth in this business. To err

means nothing more than to judge as true what is in fact false, and as false what is

true. It means to be certain about the uncertain, uncertain about the certain,

whether it be certainly true or certainly false. This sort of error in the mind is

deforming and improper, since the fitting and proper thing would be to be able to

say, in speech or judgment: "Yes, yes. No, no."32 Actually, the wretched lives we lead

come partly from this: that sometimes if they are not to be entirely lost, error is

unavoidable. It is different in that higher life where Truth itself is the life of our

souls, where none deceives and none is deceived. In this life men deceive and are

deceived, and are actually worse off when they deceive by lying than when they are

deceived by believing lies. Yet our rational mind shrinks from falsehood, and

naturally avoids error as much as it can, so that even a deceiver is unwilling to be

29Ibid., 479.

30Sed in via pedum, non in via morum.

31Virgil, Eclogue, VIII, 42. The context of the passage is Damon's complaint over his faithless Nyssa;

he is here remembering the first time he ever saw her--when he was twelve! Cf. Theocritus, II, 82.

32Cf. Matt. 5:37.


deceived by somebody else.33 For the liar thinks he does not deceive himself and

that he deceives only those who believe him. Indeed, he does not err in his lying, if

he himself knows what the truth is. But he is deceived in this, that he supposes that

his lie does no harm to himself, when actually every sin harms the one who commits

it more that it does the one who suffers it.









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