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Enchiridion On Faith, Hope and Love
by Saint Augustine


CHAPTER XIV

THE MYSTERIES OF CHRIST'S MEDIATORIAL WORK (48-49) AND JUSTIFICATION (50-55)

48. That one sin, however, committed in a setting of such great happiness,

was itself so great that by it, in one man, the whole human race was originally and,

so to say, radically condemned. It cannot be pardoned and washed away except

through "the one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus,"92 who

alone could be born in such a way as not to need to be reborn.

49. They were not reborn, those who were baptized by John's baptism, by

which Christ himself was baptized.93 Rather, they were prepared by the ministry of

this forerunner, who said, "Prepare a way for the Lord,"94 for Him in whom alone

they could be reborn.

For his baptism is not with water alone, as John's was, but with the Holy

Spirit as well. Thus, whoever believes in Christ is reborn by that same Spirit, of

whom Christ also was born, needing not to be reborn. This is the reason for the

Voice of the Father spoken over him at his baptism, "Today have I begotten thee,"95

which pointed not to that particular day on which he was baptized, but to that "day"

of changeless eternity, in order to show us that this Man belonged to the personal

Unity of the Only Begotten. For a day that neither begins with the close of

yesterday nor ends with the beginning of tomorrow is indeed an eternal "today."

Therefore, he chose to be baptized in water by John, not thereby to wash

away any sin of his own, but to manifest his great humility. Indeed, baptism found

nothing in him to wash away, just as death found nothing to punish. Hence, it was

in authentic justice, and not by violent power, that the devil was overcome and

conquered: for, as he had most unjustly slain Him who was in no way deserving of

death, he also did most justly lose those whom he had justly held in bondage as

punishment for their sins. Wherefore, He took upon himself both baptism and

death, not out of a piteous necessity but through his own free act of showing mercy--

as part of a definite plan whereby One might take away the sin of the world, just as

one man had brought sin into the world, that is, the whole human race.

50. There is a difference, however. The first man brought sin into the world,

whereas this One took away not only that one sin but also all the others which he

found added to it. Hence, the apostle says, "And the gift [of grace] is not like the

effect of the one that sinned: for the judgment on that one trespass was

condemnation; but the gift of grace is for many offenses, and brings justification."96

Now it is clear that the one sin originally inherited, even if it were the only one

involved, makes men liable to condemnation. Yet grace justifies a man for many

offenses, both the sin which he originally inherited in common with all the others

and also the multitude of sins which he has committed on his own.

51. However, when he [the apostle] says, shortly after, "Therefore, as the

offense of one man led all men to condemnation, so also the righteousness of one

man leads all men to the life of justification,"97 he indicates sufficiently that

everyone born of Adam is subject to damnation, and no one, unless reborn of Christ,

is free from such a damnation.

52. And after this discussion of punishment through one man and grace

through the Other, as he deemed sufficient for that part of the epistle, the apostle

92I Tim. 2:5.

93Matt. 3:13.

94Luke 3:4; Isa. 40:3.

95Ps. 2:7; Heb. 5:5; cf. Mark 1:9-11.

96Rom. 5:16.

97Rom. 5:18.


passes on to speak of the great mystery of holy baptism in the cross of Christ, and to

do this so that we may understand nothing other in the baptism of Christ than the

likeness of the death of Christ. The death of Christ crucified is nothing other than

the likeness of the forgiveness of sins--so that in the very same sense in which the

death is real, so also is the forgiveness of our sins real, and in the same sense in

which his resurrection is real, so also in us is there authentic justification.

He asks: "What, then, shall we say? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may

abound?"98--for he had previously said, "But where sin abounded, grace did much

more abound."99 And therefore he himself raised the question whether, because of

the abundance of grace that follows sin, one should then continue in sin. But he

answers, "God forbid!" and adds, "How shall we, who are dead to sin, live any longer

therein?"100 Then, to show that we are dead to sin, "Do you not know that all we

who were baptized in Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?"101

If, therefore, the fact that we are baptized into the death of Christ shows that

we are dead to sin, then certainly infants who are baptized in Christ die to sin, since

they are baptized into his own death. For there is no exception in the saying, "All we

who are baptized into Christ Jesus are baptized into his death." And the effect of

this is to show that we are dead to sin.

Yet what sin do infants die to in being reborn except that which they inherit

in being born? What follows in the epistle also pertains to this: "Therefore we were

buried with him by baptism into death; that, as Christ was raised up from the dead

by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in the newness of life. For if

we have been united with him in the likeness of his death, we shall be also united

with him in the likeness of his resurrection, knowing this, that our old man is

crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we

should not serve sin. For he that is dead is freed from sin. Now if we are dead with

Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him: knowing that Christ, being

raised from the dead, dies no more; death has no more dominion over him. For the

death he died, he died to sin, once for all; but the life he lives, he lives unto God. So

also, reckon yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive unto God through Christ

Jesus."102

Now, he had set out to prove that we should not go on sinning, in order that

thereby grace might abound, and had said, "If we have died to sin, how, then, shall

we go on living in it?" And then to show that we were dead to sin, he had added,

"Know you not, that as many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized

into his death?" Thus he concludes the passage as he began it. Indeed, he introduced

the death of Christ in order to say that even he died to sin. To what sin, save that of

the flesh in which he existed, not as sinner, but in "the likeness of sin" and which

was, therefore, called by the name of sin? Thus, to those baptized into the death of

Christ--into which not only adults but infants as well are baptized--he says, "So also

you should reckon yourselves to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus."

53. Whatever was done, therefore, in the crucifixion of Christ, his burial, his

resurrection on the third day, his ascension into heaven, his being seated at the

Father's right hand--all these things were done thus, that they might not only

signify their mystical meanings but also serve as a model for the Christian life

which we lead here on the earth. Thus, of his crucifixion it was said, "And they that

are Jesus Christ's have crucified their own flesh, with the passions and lusts

thereof"103; and of his burial, "For we are buried with Christ by baptism into death";

of his resurrection, "Since Christ is raised from the dead through the glory of the

Father, so we also should walk with him in newness of life"; of his ascension and

98Rom. 6:1.

99Rom. 5:20.

100Rom. 6:2.

101Rom. 6:3.

102Rom. 6:4-11.

103Gal. 5:24.


session at the Father's right hand: "But if you have risen again with Christ, seek

the things which are above, where Christ is sitting at the right hand of God. Set

your affection on things above, not on things on the earth. For you are dead, and

your life is hid with Christ in God."104

54. Now what we believe concerning Christ's future actions, since we confess

that he will come again from heaven to judge the living and the dead, does not

pertain to this life of ours as we live it here on earth, because it belongs not to his

deeds already done, but to what he will do at the close of the age. To this the apostle

refers and goes on to add, "When Christ, who is your life, shall appear, you shall

then also appear with him in glory."105

55. There are two ways to interpret the affirmation that he "shall judge the

living and the dead." On the one hand, we may understand by "the living" those who

are not yet dead but who will be found living in the flesh when he comes; and we

may understand by "the dead" those who have left the body, or who shall have left it

before his coming. Or, on the other hand, "the living" may signify "the righteous,"

and "the dead" may signify "the unrighteous"--since the righteous are to be judged

as well as the unrighteous. For sometimes the judgment of God is passed upon the

evil, as in the word, "But they who have done evil [shall come forth] to the

resurrection of judgment."106 And sometimes it is passed upon the good, as in the

word, "Save me, O God, by thy name, and judge me in thy strength."107 Indeed, it is

by the judgment of God that the distinction between good and evil is made, to the

end that, being freed from evil and not destroyed with the evildoers, the good may

be set apart at his right hand.108 This is why the psalmist cried, "Judge me, O God,"

and, as if to explain what he had said, "and defend my cause against an unholy

nation."109









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