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The Moral Concordances
Of Saint Anthony Of Padua

1. IF there were never a time when so many sermons issued from the press as at the present day, it is equally certain that, however much we may boast of our Scriptural knowledge, there never was a period when such compositions showed so little deep and ready acquaintance with the Bible. The actual quantity of reference to Scripture contained in the first volume of modern sermons which one may happen to take up, is surprisingly small: and further, the quotations are almost entirely made from favourite books—parade the same texts over and over again—leave vast portions of the Bible utterly untouched—and are superficially adduced without regard to their context. Now, whatever judgments may be formed in other respects of mediæval preachers, in this one thing it cannot be denied that they excel their successors. It is not merely that they quote ten texts for one in modern discourses; but that the passages they adduce are brought forward with impartiality, and according to analogy, from the Old and the New Testament; from the historical books and the prophets, as well, and as much, as from the Epistles and Gospels. This is what gives those sermons so much value. Their writers took, as it were, a bird’s-eye view of the whole volume of Scripture at once—saw, at a glance, what was most apposite—were as much at home in one portion as in another; and could, therefore, select the very text, or passage, which bore most strikingly on the point which they had in hand. Ours, on the contrary, wander up and down in some few trodden paths—never get out of them—never wish to look beyond them. Hence the fulness of the one, and the jejunity of the other, system.

2. S. Antony of Padua was not only one of the greatest, but, perhaps, the most popular, among the preachers of the Middle Ages. His extant Sermons, or, as they might rather be called, Sermon Notes, though coming down to us with all the disadvantages of their skeleton form, nevertheless evince a grasp of the Sacred Volume which well entitles him to the name bestowed on him by Gregory IX.,—“The Ark of the Testament.” That which he exemplifies in his discourses, he shows in a not less striking manner by the “Concordantiæ Morales,” which are now, for the first time, presented to the English reader.

3. To enter into the question of the allegorical interpretation of Scripture in which the Middle Ages delighted, would require a volume instead of a preface. [Further remarks on this subject may be seen, if the reader wishes it, in the introduction to my Mediæval Preachers.] It is not denied that many of the passages adduced by S. Antony could scarcely be quoted to a modern audience in the sense in which he applies them. Nevertheless even from these, by way of illustration, if not by way of proof, a preacher of the present century might learn much, as a few examples, presently to be given will, perhaps, prove.

4. The “Moral Concordances” have come down to us in a very imperfect state. They were long supposed to be lost, and indeed considerable doubts were entertained whether such a book had ever existed. S. Antony died in 1231, and the manuscript was not discovered till about 1638, when it was disinterred in the library attached to the Church called Aracœli, in Rome. It seems to have been published without very much attention to the correctness of its references; and as its author had, of course, merely referred to the chapter, without the verse, a great portion of the mistakes which occur may be owing to such (then necessary) vagueness of quotation. Further, it would seem that the subjects and the texts had been written in parallel columns, so that sometimes the verse which ought to have been last on one list, has found its way into the section which follows. The references are throughout most incorrectly given; one book even of Holy Scripture being sometimes substituted for another, while the chapters are very frequently wrong, and the verses in the later edition badly quoted in, perhaps, one instance out of three.

5. In the present edition all the references have been verified, and have been made to correspond with the authorised version—the Psalms, however, being quoted from the Prayer Book. The letter “f” refers to the former, “m” to the middle, and “l” to the latter part of a verse. It is possible that, in one or two cases, the texts given are not those which S. Antony had quoted; it being very difficult, here and there, to decide whether there is a far-fetched allusion, or whether the transcriber has, by mistake, inserted a passage which has nothing to do with the subject.

6. The Concordances are said on the title-page to be adapted to modern use. The omissions are not at all of a doctrinal character, but simply falling under one or other of the following heads. (1.) Those which have no bearing on the duties of English Churchmen of the present day; such as—Of the pride of Abbats, Of Pilgrimages, Of the Discipline of Monks, and the like. In a book intended for use, it seemed worse than superfluous to swell the pages with references from which the modern Preacher could not possibly derive any advantage. (2.) Some sections are also omitted, based on half theological, half metaphysical divisions, which no one would now be able to introduce into any sermon. For instance: there are several headings, which are occupied with the various kinds of contemplation. “The first consists in imagination according to imagination; the second, in imagination according to reason; the third, in reason according to imagination; the fourth, in reason according to reason; the fifth is above reason, in a lower sense; the sixth is above reason, in a higher sense.” It is clear that such a distribution of texts would now be of no practical use in the pulpit. (3.) When two sections, which is often the case, are occupied with subjects so nearly allied as to be almost identical, and when the references given, are, for the most part, the same, then the second is very frequently omitted. (4.) In like manner, and also for the sake of brevity, references are very often omitted which have occurred in previous sections, in allusion to the same subject. (5.) In some instances, and more especially in the first book, sections referring to sins which could not possibly be treated of in the pulpit, have been left out; and the same may be said of minute subdivisions of other sins, such as, The pride of the eyes, Of the neck, Of the arms, Of the shoulders, &c. So that, in several cases, the last section only, generally thus summed up by S. Antony, De precedentibus generaliter, is the only one which is given. Perhaps this abbreviating process, so far as practical use is concerned, might have been advantageously carried somewhat further. (6.) In some cases a reference has necessarily been omitted, where, however beautiful the allusion to the words of the Vulgate, it would be utterly without sense when applied to our own version. Thus, the verse, The LORD chose new wars, is an excellent text for the festival of a virgin martyr, as setting forth the novelty of the conflict in which pain and death were overcome by a woman. But it would be useless to refer to the same text in our version; where we read, They chose new gods; then was war in the gates. So again, the grace of purity, as bestowed by the Holy Eucharist, is beautifully set forth by Zech. 9:17, as it stands in the Vulgate;—“For what is His goodness and what is His beauty, save the Corn of the Eleet, and the Wine that blossoms into Virgins?” The force of which is entirely lost by our English version: Corn shall make the young men cheerful, and new wine the maids. (7.) In several instances, and more especially at the beginning of the work, S. Antony has summed up the effects of a particular vice or virtue in a series of verses, not remarkable, generally speaking, either for their point or their terseness. In some cases, where the characteristics of one sin are nearly identical with those of another, they have been omitted; and in others, that which is verse in the Latin, has been put into prose. These are the principal alterations which have been made in the original book: and it has thus been reduced from 567 to 471 sections. It may be proper to observe, that nothing whatever has been added to the references selected by S. Antony.

8. We will give a few examples of the different ways in which the Moral Concordances might be useful in the present day. And first, of ingenious application of texts, which might well be used as illustrations. Separation from the world, if we would heartily serve GOD, is enforced by the example of Moses. (Ex. 8:27.)—“We will go three days’ journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to the LORD our GOD, as He shall command us;” and, again, by the exhortation in the Canticles, 3:11, (where the stress in this sense must be laid on the two first words,) “Go forth, O ye daughters of Zion, and behold King Solomon.” The attacks to which we are exposed from the threefold temptations of the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, are illustrated by Job 1:17. “The Chaldeans made out three bands;” by the threefold dangers of which Jeremiah speaks, (5:6.)—“Wherefore a lion out of the forest shall slay them; and a wolf of the evenings shall spoil them; a leopard shall watch over their cities:” and by Rev. 9:17—“Out of their mouths issued fire and smoke and brimstone; by these three was the third part of men killed; by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone.” Against being assailed by violent temptation in the hour of death; (S. Matt. 24:20)—“But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter.” Against negligence in prayer: (Jer. 48:10)—“Cursed be he that doeth the work of the LORD deceitfully.” That a prelate should be diligent in his labours; (Gen. 47:6)—“And if thou knowest any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over my cattle;” and Prov. 27:23—“Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks, and look well to thy herds.” Against pluralities; (Exod. 18:18)—“This thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it thyself alone.” And S. Luke 19:21—“Thou art an austere man: thou takest up that thou layedest not down, and reapest that thou didst not sow.” That ecclesiastical revenues are not to be laid out on the possessor’s family; (Lev. 22:12)—“If the priest’s daughter also be married unto a stranger, she may not eat of an offering of the holy things:” and Prov. 28:24—“Whoso robbeth his father or his mother,”—that is—GOD or the Church—“and saith, It is no transgression; the same is a companion of the destroyer.” That GOD sometimes chooses the greatest sinners to be His most eminent servants; (Prov. 31:14)—“She bringeth her food from afar.” That preachers must not contradict their doctrines by their lives; (Ps. 88:11)—“Shall Thy loving kindness be showed in the grave, or Thy faithfulness in destruction?” That preaching must be according to the capacity of the hearer; (Gen. 44:1)—“Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry.” Against those who are negligent in preaching; (Gen. 29:10)—“Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well’s mouth, and watered the flock:” and Prov. 11:26—“He that withholdeth corn, the people shall curse him;” and 22:9—“He that hath a bountiful eye shall be blessed; for he giveth of his bread to the poor.” Of the Passion of our LORD; (Josh. 8:26)—“For Joshua drew not his hand back wherewith he stretched out the spear, until he had utterly destroyed all the inhabitants of Ai.” Of the Last Judgment; (Rev. 16:19)—“Great Babylon came in remembrance before GOD, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath.” Of the Resurrection; (Gen. 8:21)—“I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake;” and Cant. 1:4—“Draw me, we will run after Thee;” as showing that our own resurrection is dependent on that of our LORD; and S. John 12:32—“And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto Me.” For the Festival of S. Peter; (2 Sam. 15:21)—“Surely, in what place my LORD the King shall be, whether in death or life, even there also will Thy servant be.” (Compare S. John 13:37—“LORD, why cannot I follow Thee now?” I will lay down my life for Thy sake.”) Of our LORD’s Manifestation of His love in His Passion; (Gal. 6:11)—“Ye see how large a letter I have written unto you with Mine own hand.” For the Festival of an Apostle; (Gen. 42:13)—“Thy servants are twelve brethren, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan.” For the Festival of Martyrs; (Nah. 2:3)—“The shield of His mighty men is made red: the valiant men are in scarlet.” For the Festival of a virgin Martyr: (Cant. 4:8)—“Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon … from the lions’ dens, from the mountains of the leopards.” For the Festival of Confessors: (1 Kings 12:20)—“There was none that followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only.”

9. As an example of the more obvious application of Scriptural texts and histories, take the following section, 138 in the original;

Against those that agree in evil; or that make a conspiracy against others

Gen. 14:1. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations, that … all these were joined together.

34:25. Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brethren, took each man his sword, and came upon the city.

37:18. Before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to slay him.

Ex. 32:3. And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron.

Num. 16:1. Now Korah, the son of Izhar, and Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On, the son of Peleth, took men: and they rose up before Moses, with certain of the children of Israel, two hundred and fifty princes of the assembly.

2 Sam. 15:12. And the conspiracy was strong, for the people increased continually with Absalom.

Prov. 1:10. My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not.

Is. 1:23. Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves.

8:12. Say ye not, A confederacy, to all them to whom this people shall say, A confederacy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid.

Jer. 11:9. And the LORD said unto me, A conspiracy is found among the men of Judah, and among the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

Jer. 38:5. Behold he is in your hand; for the king is not he that can do anything against you.

Dan. 6:4. Then the presidents and princes sought to find occasion against Daniel.

Wis. 2:10. Let us oppress the poor righteous man; let us not spare the widow, nor reverence the ancient grey hairs of the aged.

S. John 11:47. Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we?

Gal. 5:20. Seditions, heresies.

Here is another example, section 456 in the original;

That the righteous are ridiculed, and suffer persecution in the present life

Gen. 4:8. Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

15:13. Know of a surety, that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them: and they shall afflict them four hundred years.

16:4. Her mistress was despised in her eyes.

19:9. This one fellow came in to sojourn, and he will needs be a judge; now will we deal worse with thee than with them.

21:9. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking.

26:14. And the Philistines envied him.

27:41. And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing wherewith his father blessed him.

31:23. And he took his brethren with him, and pursued after him seven days’ journey.

37:4. And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him.

Ex. 1:12. And they were grieved because of the children of Israel.

Num. 16:3. Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them.

1 Sam. 21:14. Lo, ye see the man is mad; wherefore then have ye brought him to me?

23:14. And Saul sought him every day, but GOD delivered him not into his hand.

2 Sam. 16:7. Come out, come out, thou bloody man, and thou man of Belial.

2 Chron. 30:10. So the posts passed from city to city … but they laughed them to scorn.

Job 2:9. Dost thou still retain thy integrity? curse GOD, and die.

12:4. The just upright man is laughed to scorn.

19:18. Yea, young children despised me; I arose, and they spake against me.

30:1. But now they that are younger than I have me in derision.

9. And now am I their song, yea, I am their byword.

Ps. 2:2. The kings of the earth stand up, and the rulers take counsel together.

3:2. Many one there be that say of my soul: There is no help for him in his GOD.

22:12. Many oxen are come about me: fat bulls of Basan close me in on every side.

69:11. I put on sackcloth also: and they jested upon me.

83:2. For lo, thine enemies make a murmuring; and they that hate thee have lift up their head.

109:4. Thus have they rewarded me evil for good: and hatred for my good will.

Prov. 14:2. He that walketh in his uprightness feareth the LORD; but he that is perverse in his ways despiseth him.

19:28. An ungodly witness scorneth judgment.

29:10. The bloodthirsty hate the upright.

27. He that is upright in the way is abomination to the wicked.

Is. 36:4. And Rabshakeh said unto them, Say ye now to Hezekiah, Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria, What confidence is this wherein thou trustest?

53:2. He hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see Him, there is no beauty that we should desire Him.

Jer. 17:15. Behold they say unto me, Where is the Word of the LORD? let it come now.

20:8. The Word of the LORD was made a reproach unto me, and a derision, daily.

Lam. 2:16. All thine enemies have opened their mouth against thee: they hiss and gnash the teeth, they say, We have swallowed her up: certainly this is the day that we looked for; we have found, we have seen it.

3:14. I was a derision to all my people; and their song all the day.

Wis. 5:3. This was he, whom we had sometime in derision, and a proverb of reproach.

S. Matt. 27:29. And they bowed the knee before Him, and mocked Him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews!

S. Luke 23:11. And Herod with his men of war set Him at nought, and mocked Him.

S. John 8:48. Say we not well that Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil?

15:19. Because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world, hateth you.

Acts 26:24. Paul, thou art beside thyself; much learning doth make thee mad.

1 Cor. 4:9. For we are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.

S. James 2:6. But ye have despised the poor.

10. We will next take a section in which the meaning is more recondite; and the references such as would now probably be used rather by way of illustration than of proof. It is in the original 472:—

That the memory of the LORD’s Passion gives comfort, and sweetens all evils

Ex. 12:13. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you.

15:25. The LORD showed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet.

28:38. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things.… and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD.—[This golden plate is interpreted by mediæval writers of our LORD Himself: by Whom, according to this explanation, all Christians, as a royal priesthood, receive pardon of their sins, and acceptance with GOD.]

Num. 20:11. And with his rod he smote the rock twice, and the water came out abundantly.

21:8. Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten when he looketh upon it, shall live.

Josh. 2:21. She bound the scarlet line in the window.

1 Sam. 2:16. Let them not fail to burn the fat presently, [or, as it is in the Vulgate, first], and then take as much as thy soul desireth; [that is, by means of the Passion of CHRIST first suffered, all that the soul of His people can desire, is given to them: a parallel passage in this sense, with “He that spared not His Own SON, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?”]

1 Kings 17:3. Get thee hence, and turn thee eastward, and hide thyself by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan.

2 Kings 4:40. O thou man of GOD, there is death in the pot. But he said, Then bring meal, and he cast it into the pot.… and there was no harm in the pot. [That is, the wild gourds are a type of sin; the vessel, of the human heart; the meal, of the Holy Eucharist, and its effect in preserving against the dangers of temptation.]

Ps. 25:20. Let perfectness and righteous dealing wait upon me. [That is, the perfect righteousness of our LORD: wait upon me, in the sense of that verse, “The SON of MAN came not to be ministered unto but to minister.”]

Ps. 104:18. So are the stony rocks for the conies. [“That rock was CHRIST.”]

Prov. 3:18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her; and happy is every one that retaineth her.

30:26. The conies are but a feeble folk, yet make they their houses in the rocks.

Eccles. 9:14. Now there was found in it a poor wise man, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor man.

Cant. 1:13. A bundle of myrrh is my Well-Beloved unto me; he shall lie all night betwixt my breasts.

2:2. I sat under His shadow with great delight, and His fruit was sweet to my taste.

14. O My dove, that art in the clefts of the rock.

8:6. Set me as a seal upon Thine heart, as a seal upon Thine arm.

Is. 2:10. Enter into the Rock.

Ezek. 9:6. Slay utterly old and young, both maids, and little children, and women: but come not near any man upon whom is the mark.

Ecclus. 14:25. He shall lodge in a lodging where good things are.

29:17. He that is of an unthankful mind will leave Him that delivered him.

38:4. The LORD hath created medicines out of the earth, and he that is wise will not abhor them.

1 Macc. 6:34. And to the end they might provoke the elephants to fight, they showed them the blood of grapes and mulberries.

Heb. 12:3. For consider Him that endured such contradiction of sinners against Himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds.

Take as another example, section 466:—

Of the Incarnation and Nativity of CHRIST

Gen. 49:10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until SHILOH come; and unto Him shall the gathering of the people be.

Ex. 4:13. O my Lord, send, I pray Thee, by the hand of Him Whom Thou wilt send.

31:2. See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah.

Num. 17:2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and take every one of them a rod according to the house of their fathers, of all their princes according to the house of their fathers twelve rods; write thou every man’s name upon his rod, etc.

24:17. There shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall arise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.

Deut. 18:15. The LORD thy GOD will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren like unto me; unto Him ye shall hearken.

Judg. 6:37. Behold, I will put a fleece of wool in the floor; and if the dew be on the fleece only, and it be dry upon all the earth beside, then shall I know that Thou wilt save Israel by mine hand, as Thou hast said.

13:2. And there was a certain man of Zorah, whose name was Manoah, and his wife was barren, and bare not, etc.

1 Kings 8:12. The LORD said that He would dwell in the thick darkness: (the allusion is to the mystery of the Incarnation.)

Job 31:35. Oh that one would hear me! Behold, my desire is, that the ALMIGHTY would answer me, and that mine adversary had written a book.

33:23. If there be a Messenger with him, an Interpreter, one among a thousand, to show unto man his uprightness.

38:6. Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or Who laid the corner stone thereof?

Ps. 2:7. I will preach the law, whereof the LORD hath said unto me: Thou art My SON, this day have I begotten Thee.

72:6. He shall come down like the rain into a fleece of wool: even as the drops that water the earth.

77:14. Thou art the GOD That doeth wonders: and hast declared Thy power among the people.

80:1. Show Thyself also, Thou That sittest upon the cherubims,

110:1. The LORD said unto my Lord: Sit Thou on My right Hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool.

144:5. Bow Thy heavens, O LORD, and come down: touch the mountains, and they shall smoke.

Prov. 30:4. Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended?

31:10. Who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies.

Eccles. 7:28. One Man among a thousand have I found: but a woman among all those have I not found.

Cant. 3:11. Go forth, O ye daughters of Sion, and behold King Solomon with the crown wherewith His Mother crowned Him in the day of His Espousals, and in the day of the gladness of His heart.

Is. 1:9. Except the LORD of Hosts had left unto us a very small remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrah.

2:2. And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the LORD’s House shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills, and all nations shall flow unto it.

4:1. And in that day seven women shall take hold of one Man.

7:14. Behold, a Virgin shall conceive, and bear a Son, and shall call his name Emmanuel.

8:1. Take thee a great roll, and write in it with a man’s pen concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz.

9:6. For unto us a Child is born; unto us a Son is given.

11:1. And there shall come forth a Rod out of the stem of Jesse and a Branch shall grow out of his roots.

16:1. Send ye the Lamb to the ruler of the land from Sela to the wilderness.

19:1. Behold, the LORD rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt.

28:16. Behold, I lay in Sion for a foundation a Stone, a tried Stone, a precious Corner-stone, a sure Foundation.

35:4. He will come and save you.

40:9. Say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your GOD.

Is. 42:1. Behold My servant Whom I uphold; Mine Elect, in Whom my soul delighteth.

46:11. Calling a ravenous bird from the east, the Man that executeth My counsel from a far country.

49:1. The LORD hath called Me from the womb; from the bowels of My Mother hath He made mention of My Name.

52:13. Behold, My servant shall deal prudently; He shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high.

53:8. Who shall declare His generation?

54:1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear.

55:4. Behold, I have given Him for a Witness to the people; a Leader and Commander to the people.

60:1. Arise, shine: for thy light is come, and the glory of the LORD hath risen upon thee.

61:1. The Spirit of the LORD GOD is upon Me, &c.

62:1. For Sion’s sake will I not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest, until the righteousness thereof go forth as brightness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp that burneth.

64:1. O that Thou wouldest rend the heavens, that Thou wouldest come down, that the mountains might flow down at Thy presence.

65:1. I said, Behold Me, behold Me, unto a nation that was not called by My Name.

66:7. Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain came, she was delivered of a Man Child.

Jer. 14:8. O the Hope of Israel, the Saviour thereof in time of trouble, why shouldest Thou be as a stranger in the land?

15:10. Woe is me, My Mother, that thou hast borne me a Man of strife and a Man of contention to the whole earth!

23:5. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper.

31:22. The LORD hath created a new thing in the earth: a woman shall compass a Man.

Ezek. 34:23. And I will set up one Shepherd over them, and He shall feed them, even My servant David.

29. And I will raise up for them a Plant of renown, and they shall no more be consumed with hunger in the land.

Dan. 2:44. And in the days of these kings shall the GOD of Heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed.

Dan. 3:25. Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth is like the SON of GOD.

7:13. I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the SON of MAN came with the clouds of heaven.

9:24. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression … and to anoint the Most Holy.

Hos. 1:11. Then shall the children of Judah and the children of Israel be gathered together, and appoint themselves One Head.

2:19. And I will betroth thee unto Me for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto Me in righteousness.

6:1. Come, and let its return unto the LORD: for He hath torn, and He will heal us; He hath smitten, and He will bind us up.

11:1. When Israel was a child, then I loved Him, and called My Son out of Egypt.

13:14. I will ransom them from the power of the grave: I will redeem them from death.

14:5. I will be as the dew unto Israel.

Joel 2:23. Be glad then, ye children of Sion, and rejoice in the LORD your GOD; for He hath given you the former rain moderately; and he will cause to come down for you the rain, the former rain, and the latter rain of the first month. And the floors shall be full of wheat.

Amos 4:12. Prepare to meet thy GOD, O Israel.

Jon. 1:2. Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it.

Mic. 1:3. For behold, the LORD cometh forth out of His place, and will come down, and tread upon the high places of the earth.

15. Yet will I bring an Heir unto thee, O inhabitant of Mareshah.

5:2. But thou, Bethlehem-Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall He come forth unto Me That is to be Ruler in Israel; Whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.

Hab. 2:2. Write the vision, and make it plain upon tables, that he may run that readeth it.

Hag. 2:6. Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land.

Zech. 2:10. Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Sion; for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the LORD.

3:3. Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments. (The allusion is, to the assumption by our LORD JESUS—the same name as Joshua—of the garment of our nature.)

8. Behold, I will bring forth My servant, the Branch.

8:23. In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of Him That is a Jew.

Zech. 9:9. Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, thy King cometh unto thee.

13:1. In that day there shall be a foundation opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness.

Mal. 3:1. The LORD, Whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to His temple.

4:2. But unto you that fear My Name shall the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in His wings.

Wis. 18:14. For while all things were in quiet silence, and that night was in the midst of her swift course, Thine Almighty Word leaped down from heaven out of Thy royal throne.

Ecclus. 38:4. The LORD hath created medicines out of the earth.

Bar. 3:37. Afterward did He show Himself upon earth, and conversed with men.

1 Macc. 14:41. Also that the Jews and priests were well pleased that Simon should be their Governor and High Priest for ever.… moreover, that He should be their Captain, and should take charge of the sanctuary … beside this, that He should be obeyed of every man.

S. Matt. 3:17. This is My beloved Son, in Whom I am I well pleased.

S. Luke 1:30. Fear not, Mary; for thou hast found favour with GOD.

11. It cannot be denied that some of the references are so extremely far-fetched or allegorical, as to be utterly inapplicable to modern audiences, who have to learn, for the most part, the general principle of any symbolical teaching in Holy Scripture. Thus, that the soul of the proud man is the abode of Satan is proved by the text, referring to Behemoth;—“He lieth under the tall trees.” That we ought frequently to call to mind our sins in order to confess them the more exactly, is taught from the three following passages. Gen. 1:9. “And GOD said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear; and it was so.” Gen. 27:9. “Go now to the flock, and fetch me from thence two good kids of the goats; and I will make them savoury meat for thy father, such as he loveth.” 38:17. “And he said, I will send thee a kid from the flock. And she said, Wilt thou give me a pledge, till thou send it?” The great truth, that a man is never so likely to be exposed to temptation, as when he has just received some especial grace, is taught from Tobit 6:2; it was when Tobias had just been washing himself in the river that the fish leaped out upon him, and would have devoured him. Against the discrepancy between the lives and doctrine of wicked preachers. Ps. 104:8. “They go up as high as the hills, and down to the valleys beneath.” That the labourer is worthy of his hire. Ps. 147:8. “Who maketh the grass to grow upon the mountains;” the mountains being the emblem of preachers, and grass of their means of support. Of the Resurrection: Eccles. 12:4—“He shall rise up at the voice of the bird”—that is, of the Archangel. For the Festival of S. Andrew: 2 Kings 4:32. “Behold, the child was dead, and laid upon his bed;”—an allusion to S. Andrew’s having suffered by being laid upon our LORD’s bed—namely the Cross. For the Conversion of S. Paul: Ecclus. 8:1—“Strive not with a mighty man, lest thou fall into his hands;” the reference being to our LORD’s Words, “Why persecutest thou Me?”

12. It would have been my wish to adopt the same form as that of the original, and to print at length the first line of each text to which reference was made. But the size to which this would have swelled the present volume, making it an octavo of about 300 pages, rendered the arrangement impossible. One advantage will be found in the translation, the absence of which is a great drawback to the practical utility of the original, I mean the index. S. Antony’s arrangement, although it be called by his editor “most excellent, and disposed in a most learned order,” is rather confusing; and one does not see any possible connection between succeeding sections in the same chapter. The account which is prefixed to the work, and which explains the contents of its five books, is as follows:—“The first book treats of those things which pertain to the fall and their opposites, divided into Four parts. The first, of sin in general, and its effects. The second, of the principal vices, and their contraries. The third, of sins of the tongue. The fourth of the preceding, taken together. The Second Book treats of those things which pertain to GOD, with their opposites, and has two parts. The first, of endeavouring after the conversion of a sinner, and of the newly converted. The second is of the manner of conversion, which principally consists in contrition, in confession, and in satisfaction. The Third Book treats of those things which pertain to him that fights valiantly, or that is overthrown in the spiritual war; and has two parts. The first contains the temptations of the devil, persecutions of various kinds, the use of tribulation, the Divine help, perseverance in good, and the Crown of eternal life, which is due to a good soldier of CHRIST. The second treats of inconstancy, backsliding, perseverance in evil, good and evil companions, and the eternal punishment which is due to him that is overthrown in the spiritual war. The Fourth Book treats of those things which pertain to a perfect man; and has four parts. The first is of the cardinal virtues. The second is of the theological virtues. The third of the active, the fourth of the contemplative, life. The Fifth Book treats of relative duties, and certain other matters; and contains eight parts. The first is of prelates and priests, and their flocks. The second, of preachers, and those whose duty it is to rebuke. The third, of masters and servants. The fourth, of judges, lawyers, and oppressors of the poor. The fifth, of parents and children. The sixth, of the Unity and Trinity of GOD, and of CHRIST and Anti-christ. The seventh has the “Extravagant Rubrics;” (that is, the miscellaneous sections, for which no more appropriate position could be found.) The eighth treats of the Saints, in the order of the Calendar. In this last section, I have, for brevity’s sake, omitted those which are not contained in our own calendar; they are not, however, many.

13. In conclusion, the translator is only repaying a debt due to the labours of S. Antony, if he expresses the greater insight into Holy Scripture which the translation of the present work has given him. If others should derive but a quarter of the benefit that he himself is conscious of having gained from the Moral Concordances, that translation will not have been undertaken in vain.


May, 1856.

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