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HAYDOCK CATHOLIC BIBLE COMMENTARY ON THE OLD TESTAMENT



4 KINGS 18

 

CHAPTER XVIII.

 

Ver. 1.  Third, far advanced, as he was associated by his father in the last year of his reign, (C.) or three years before its termination.  D.

 

Ver. 3.  Good; opening the temple, celebrating the Passover with extraordinary magnificence, &c.  He had invited people from all Israel, and at their return they broke many statues.  Ezechias provided for the subsistence of the Levitical tribe, by ordering the laws to be put in execution in their favour.  2 Paral. xxix. and xxx.

 

Ver. 4.  Groves.  The people were now more obedient, being terrified at the chastisement of Israel, (C.) though Samaria was not taken till the sixth year of this good king; who carried his reform rather than most of his predecessors, (H.) in destroying the high places which had been unlawfully (C.) retained, as consecrated to the true God.  See v. 22.  H. --- Yet Josias had still some to remove.  M. --- Nohestan; that is, their brass, or a little brass.  So he called it in comtempt, because they had made a god of it.  Ch. --- Before, this image had been treated with due respect.  When any relic or image becomes the occasion of abuse in the Catholic Church, it is thus taken away, or the error is otherwise corrected.  See S. Aug. de C. x. 8.  Ser. 14. de Verb. Ap. &c.  W. --- Some of the ancients assert, that Ezechias suppressed many books of Solomon, on account of similar abuses.  But this seems not to be well attested.  We know that he made a collection of some of some of his sentences.  Prov. xxv. 1.

 

Ver. 5.  Like him.  Ezechias was remarkable for many excellent qualities.  Yet we must not push these comparisons too far, contrary to the intention of the sacred writers.  The same eulogium is given to Josias, (C. xxiii. 25.) and David seems to be preferred.  C. xix. 34.  These three are particularly commended.  Eccli. xlix. 5.  C. --- Their virtues were certainly different in some respects.  T.

 

Ver. 7.  Wisely.  Heb. "with success."  Syr. &c. "he was victorious wherever he went." --- Rebelled.  The Assyrian assumed an undue authority in consequence of the words of Achaz, (C. xvi. 7.) and arrogated to himself the authority of doing what he pleased with the people, v. 32.  Ezechias having formed various alliances, judged it necessary to make some resistance.  Yet the prophet Isaias (xxx. 1.) complains of his applying to the Egyptians.  C.

 

Ver. 8.  City.  Thus he punished them for their late invasion.  2 Par. xxviii. 18.

 

Ver. 9.  Samaria.  The same history is given, C. xvii. 3.  C.

 

Ver. 11.  By the rivers.  Gozan was the name of the river, as above; (H.) so that Salien suspects it should be fluvii, "of the river."  M.

 

Ver. 13.  Sennacherib's expedition in Egypt and Asia are mentioned by Herodotus (ii. 141.) and Berosus, (Joseph. x. 1.) but they do not say that he passed farther then Pelusium, (C.) the frontier on the Egyptian side of Palestine.  H. --- These expeditions might have been performed in less than eight months, during the 14th year of Ezechias, who fell sick, perhaps soon after the ruin of Sennacherib's army.  C. xx. 1.  Isaias (x. 28.) represents the Assyrian proceeding from Gabaa towards Egypt, and thence he ascended to attack the cities of Juda, (v. 25.) Manresa, (Mic. i. 15.) &c.  While he was before Lachis, Ezechias, dreading the horrors of war, purchased a peace: but the tyrant soon after sent to require him to surrender at discretion; and in the mean time he went to besiege Lebna, where his envoys found him, having received no answer from the king of Juda.  The haughty Assyrian being obliged to go to meet the king of Chus, sent insolent letters to Ezechias; but the latter was assured that all his menaces were to be despised, and on the same night that Sennacherib left Lebna, the angel destroyed 185,000 of his men.  It is thought that the siege of Lachis did not take place till three years after Sennacherib had come into Palestine, and after he had spent that time in attacking Egypt, C. xix. 24.  Joseph. x. 2. and 3. --- He attempted afterwards to take the southern cities of Juda, in order to cut off all communication with Egypt; as Nabuchodonosor, Holofernes, and Eupator probably intended to do.  Jer. xxiv. 7.  Judith vi. and vii.  1 Mac. vi. 31.  C. --- Offended, and been imprudent.  M. --- Gold, so that the value of each was equal.  D. --- Josephus reads, "or thirty," as if that quantity of gold would suffice.  H. --- The talent contains 3000 sicles.  M. --- The heart of Ezechias fainted at the approach of so great an army, though he had before made the greatest preparations.  C. xx. 2.  2 Par. xxxii. 5.  Eccli. xlviii. 19.  T.

 

Ver. 16.  On them.  All must go to meet the exigencies of the state.  Grot. Jur. ii. 5. --- The doors of temples and palaces were frequently adorned with the most precious metals, as Homer describes the palace of Alcinous; (Odys.  H.) and Tavernier (vii. 12.) speaks of some mosques in Persia, the doors of which are covered with plates of silver.  See Joseph. Bel. vi. 6.

 

Ver. 17.  Tharthan, or Thathania, (1 Esd. v. 3.) and in the Greek of Isa. xx. 1. means "the president of tributes," or presents.  The two other names denote "the chief eunuch," and "the chief butler," and are not proper names.  These officers were sent at the head of a strong army to Jerusalem. --- Field, by the torrent Cedron, to the east.  There they defied the king, or perhaps endeavoured to persuade him to come out, that they might seize his person.  C.  They came in a military capacity, rather than as ambassadors.

 

Ver. 18.  House.  Josephus says, "procurator of the palace or kingdom."  H. --- The house often refers to the temple, when placed without any explanation.  Isai. xxii. 15.  C. --- Eliacim was prefect of the prætorium, (Salien) or grand master of the palace.  He was richly dressed, and possessed a great authority over the people. --- Scribe.  See Judg. viii. 14.  This Sobna, according to S. Jerom, is different from the one who was over the house in the days of Manasses, before Eliacim was restored to his office, (C.) unless he also was a different person.  T. --- The Jews say Sobna was deprived of his dignity, on account of his having betrayed the lower city to Sennacherib.  See Isai. xxii. 21. --- Recorder, or chancellor, &c.  2 K. viii. 16.  C.

 

Ver. 20.  Counsel.  Heb. "Thou sayest (but they are but vain words) I have counsel and strength for the war."  Prot.  H. --- You have vainly boasted.  C. --- Isai. xxvi. 5.  C.

 

Ver. 21.  Pierce it.  He alludes to the reeds which grow on the Nile.  See Delrio, adag. 210.  Egypt had been already greatly harassed in the expedition of Sennacherib, so that no succour could be expected thence.  C.

 

Ver. 22.  Jerusalem.  Many were perhaps displeased at this injunction, and Rabsaces endeavoured to excite them to revolt, and insinuates (C.) that the king had made God his enemy, (H.) and must expect punishment from him.  Theod. in Isai. xxxvi. 5.  He perhaps was ignorant that these altars were contrary to his law.  M. --- Yet the Jews say that Rabsaces was son of Isaias, (ap. S. Jer. bib.) or a Samaritan.

 

Ver. 23.  Over.  Josephus insinuates that it is a challenge to fight, and that Rabsaces was so confident of victory, that he made this contemptuous proposal, (H.) knowing that the subjects of Ezechias were not good horsemen, (C.) or that they were comparatively (H.) so few in number.  M. --- Heb. "agree, or give pledges to my master."

 

Ver. 25.  Destroy.  Prosperity renders a man insolent, and the passions blind him.  Rabsaces interprets success to be a sure proof of the divine approbation, and thus attempts to justify all the excesses of his master.  C. --- God only used Sennacherib as a rod to chastise his people.  M. --- The most wicked often represent themselves as the executioners of God's will, and attribute their ambition to his decrees.  H. --- God did not order the Assyrians to destroy the land: he rather threatened to destroy them.  Isai. xxxvii.  2 Par. xxxii.  W.

 

Ver. 26.  Syriac, or Chaldee language, which was spoken at the Assyrian court, 1 Esd. iv. 7.  Dan. ii. 4.  Rabsaces was acquainted with both the languages; as the Jews say he was an apostate, which they infer from this passage, and from the legates tearing their clothes when they heard him blaspheme; as t hey pretend this was only done when blasphemy came from the mouth of an Israelite.  Grotius. --- But these reasons are very weak.  C. --- The like was practised when any thing terrifying was heard, v. 37.  H. --- The reasons why the legates desire Rabsaces not to speak in a language which the common soldiers understood, was to prevent them from shewing their indignation by shooting at him, or out of fear, lest they should be induced to cause some sedition.  M.

 

Ver. 27.  With you.  Insolent bravado! whence some have inferred the probability of pigeons' dung being really eaten.  (C. vi. 25.)  C. --- Rabsaces threatens them with all the horrors of famine, so that they shall eat such things, if they refuse to give up the city.  M.

 

Ver. 29.  My.  Heb. and Vat. Sept. "his (Sennacherib's) hand."  But the other reading of the Syriac, &c. is more natural.  These words do not occur Isai. xxxvi. 14.

 

Ver. 31.  Advantage.  Heb. "make a blessing," or present.  C. --- Chal. and Syr. "peace."

 

Ver. 32.  Till.  Sennacherib will remove you to another country, but it will be as good as this.  He requires you to surrender at discretion.  C. --- Deliver us.  This will not be in his power, no more than it was in that of the other tutelary gods.  M. --- Infidels and heretics are very foolish thus to compare their delusions with God, and his holy religion.  W.

 

Ver. 34.  Emath, Emesa. --- Arphad, or Arad, an island and city on the continent, (C.) near Tyre. --- Of Ana, &c. , "of," is not expressed in the Vulg. (H.) and it may be explained as if Ana and Ava were idols of Sepharvaim.  M. --- But they are commonly supposed to be cities.  H. --- Ana is probably a city (D.) built on both sides of the Euphrates, four days' journey from Bagdat.  Isaias does not specify these cities in the parallel passage, but they are found in the letter addressed to Ezechias, Isai. xxxvii. 13. --- Samaria, or the inhabitants who had come from distant parts, and had perhaps revolted.  We do not however find the Sennacherib had conquered them, nor does the pretend that all these conquests were made by himself.  C. --- He gives part of the honour to his ancestors.  C. xix. 12.  2 Par. xxxii. 13.  But he asserts that all the gods of the respective countries of Samaria, &c. had yielded to his superior force.  H. --- Strange infatuation in a man who looked upon the idols as gods!  They are in effect nothing.  1 Cor. viii. 4.  But as their votaries were of a different persuasion, ought they not to have acted and spoken consistently?  Yet Suetonius (Caius, c. 5.) informs us, that "on the day when Germanicus died, the temples were stoned, the altars of the gods overturned, the domestic lares thrown out by some into the open air;" all to express their grief and indignation at the gods, for not preserving his life.  H.

 

Ver. 36.  The people.  The three legates, (C.) Isai. xxxvi. 21.  And they held their peace.  H.

 

Ver. 37.  Rent, as was customary on such dismal occasions.  Joakim is reprehended for not shewing this mark of consternation, when he heard the dreadful predictions of Jeremias, xxxvi. 24.  C.

 

 








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