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HAYDOCK CATHOLIC BIBLE COMMENTARY ON THE OLD TESTAMENT



JUDGES 16

 

CHAPTER XVI.

 

Ver. 1.  A harlot, or an innkeeper; for the Heb. word signifies either.  Ch. --- We have already noticed the ambiguity of the word zona, which occurs Josue ii. 1, and is applied to Rahab.  This woman seems to have been of the same profession.  Gaza was one of the strongest towns of the Philistines, on the south of the country.  Some have erroneously supposed, (C.) that it was so called from a Persian word, which signifies a treasury, as Cambyses there deposited his most valuable effects.  Mela. i. 11.

 

Ver. 2.  Setting.  Heb. "they laid wait for him all night in the gate,...and were quiet all night, saying, in the morning, when it is day, we shall kill him."  They hoped to seize him unawares, (H.) as they were afraid to rouse this lion, and hence probably refrained from setting fire to the house: (C.) though they might be deterred from doing this, by the fear of the conflagration spreading to other parts of the city, (H.) and by an over-ruling Providence.  Salien.

 

Ver. 3.  Bolt, (sera) which may translate, "lock."  H. --- The doors of the Hebrews were fastened with bars tied in a curious manner, so as to require a sort of a key, and not to be opened but on the inside.  Hebron was above thirty miles distant: but travellers mention a small hill, where they say the doors were left in the vicinity of Gaza; (C.) and the text does not assert that Samson carried them as far as Hebron.  H. --- He went out by that gate, contrary to the expectation of the Philistines, who supposed that he would go towards Thamnatha.  If any saw him, none durst encounter the hero, as they had not yet forgotten the thousand slain with the jaw-bone.  Salien. --- The pagans confound their Hercules with Samson; (S. Aug. C. D. xviii. 19.) but the former durst not attack two at a time, whereas the latter engaged and slew many.  W.

 

Ver. 4.  After this.  The lamentable fall of Samson took place in the last year of his administration, when Heli, of the house of Thamar, succeeded Achitob I. in the high priesthood.  A.C. 1154.  Salien. --- Sorec was not far from Saraa, where Samson was born.  It probably belonged to the Philistines, as Dalila is generally supposed to have been of that nation, and most people believe a harlot.  C. --- Adrichomius says the eunuch was here baptized.  T. --- Dalila.  Some are of opinion she was married to Samson; others that she was his harlot.  If the latter opinion be true, we cannot wonder that, in punishment of his lust, the Lord delivered him up by her means into the hands of his enemies. However, if he was guilty, it is not to be doubted, but that under his afflictions, he heartily repented and returned to God, and so obtained forgiveness of his sins.  Ch. --- Dolol means, "to be impoverished or weakened," as Samson was in all respects by this wicked woman.

 

Ver. 5.  Princes, (seranim;) the five satraps, who had the chief sway in the nation, either came in person or sent messengers to Cephar-Sorec.  They were convinced that the strength of Samson was supernatural; but they wished to learn whether it depended on some magical charm, or on some religious observation, or whether he was vulnerable only in some particular part, like Achilles, who could only be slain by a wound in the heel, according to the pagans.  C. --- If Dalila would learn, and endeavour to remove the obstacle, these princes engaged to give her each 1100 pieces (or sicles, C.) of silver.  Salien.

 

Ver. 7.  Her, in jest.  H. --- Sinews; such were frequently used for strength.  Vegetius iv. 9.  Ps.x. 2.  Cato often speaks of loreos funes, (C.) or "leathern thongs."  H. --- Moist.  Heb. "seven bands, green and moist;" as if he were speaking of willow twigs, or bands made of the rind of trees, &c.  But we need not abandon the Sept. and Vulg. to follow the moderns in this place, as yetharim unquestionably means cords of sinews, and the epithet, green, is applied to the eyes of Moses, (Deut. xxiv. 7.) to denote their shining vigour and strength; so here it may signify, that the sinews were to be fresh and in full perfection.  C. --- Dalila might easily think that such bands would make Samson her prisoner.  She had people to assist her, in case she proved successful.  But Samson probably broke the bands before they made their appearance; otherwise he would have resented the woman's infidelity, and not exposed himself again.  He supposed she only made these exclamations to see what he would do, v. 9. &c.

 

Ver. 9.  Fire.  Prot. "and he brake the withs, as a thread of tow is broken when it toucheth the fire."  H. --- Thus he played with her, never suspecting that the enemy was concealed so near.  C.

 

Ver. 13.  Lace, (licio;) "the woof about the beam," &c.  Heb. "the web, (14) and she fastened it," &c.  The original text is here imperfect.  H. --- The Sept. have preserved eighteen words, which have been omitted in Heb. "the web, [and fastened them with a pin unto the wall, then shall I be weak, and be as another man.  (14) An it came to pass, when he slept, that Dalilia took seven locks of his head, and wove them with a web] and fastened them with a pin, [unto the wall] and said," &c.  Kennicott, Diss. ii. --- The Vulg. expresses the whole idea in fewer words: but the Heb. leaves the proposal of Samson imperfect.  It is observable that Grabe's edition of the Alex. Sept. has no mark of any thing being redundant; whence we might suppose, that in the days of Origen, (whose marks he endeavours to exhibit) the Hebrew agreed with the Greek version: but the 14th verse is rather different from the Vatican copy, which has been given above. --- "And Dalila (so the Sept. always style her)  lulled him asleep; (ekoimisen, as v. 19, (H.) perhaps by giving him some potion, with which people of her character are frequently provided; Salien) and she wove the seven curls of his head with the woof, (ektasewV) and she fastened them with the pins of wood into the wall," &c.  H. --- The Heb. text is liable to many difficulties, says Calmet; "If thou shalt make a tissue of seven locks of my head with the veil, which thou weavest, and shalt fasten it to a nail, I shall become weak as another man: or, If thou weave together my hair and my thread," &c.  The ancients were accustomed to weave standing.  Samson was probably lying on the ground, while Dalila was acting this farce.  C.

 

Ver. 16.  Death.  Heb. "and pressed him so, that his soul was straitened unto death."  It would be well if Christians would always make as stout a resistance against manifest temptations to sin, as Samson did on this occasion, when he might consider the revealing of the truth rather as an indiscretion than as a crime.  It is difficult to determine in what precisely the fault consisted, which was followed by so severe a punishment.  Perhaps he may have been placed as a pattern of patience, like holy Job, without incurring the divine displeasure.  Yet most people suppose, that he fell by the love of women, and by disclosing the secret of his strength.  But where do we read that he had received a precept from god, not to mention it even to his wife?  For in this light SS. Ephrem and Chrys. Sulp Severus, Pererius, and others, represent Dalila, which removes the greatest objection to his character.  We have seen (v. 1) that the harlot of Gaza might be only an innkeeper; and the first object of his love, was proposed to him by the holy spirit.  C. xiv. 4.  But even allowing that Dalila was a harlot, though the Scripture does not assert it, what harm was there in Samson's endeavouring to reclaim her, and to make her his wife, as Osee (i. 2.) was commanded to do?  It is only said, (v. 4) the he loved a woman; and his subsequent conduct with her, might be nothing more than what is lawful among lovers, or even commendable between married people.  Isaac's playing with Rebecca, his wife, (Gen. xxvi. 8.) was a proof of his conjugal love for her, as S. Francis de Sales observes.  Generous souls are frequently prone to love, and delight to unbend their minds in the company of the fair sex, with whom they can fear no rivalship in strength.  Samson, in particular, seemed unable to deny their importunate requests.  He yielded at last to explain his riddle to his first wife, and though he was justly offended at her infidelity, he took occasion from it to begin the work for which he was sent by God, the destruction of the enemy.  Perhaps he thought that his compliance with the repeated solicitations of Dalila would be attended with the like effect, as in reality it was, and he destroyed more in death than during the whole course of his life.  Without the strongest proofs, it seems unjust to pass sentence of condemnation upon a great character, the number of the perfect being already too small.  Our Saviour, laden with the sins of mankind, as with the treacherous Dalila, exclaimed, my soul is sorrowful unto death.  Mat. xxvi. 38.  Yet (H.) the weakness of Samson's heart throughout this history, is still more surprising than the strength of his body.  C. --- Tirin asserts that God had granted him such strength, with an order not to disclose the secret, that it was attached to the not wilfully having his hair cut.

 

Ver. 17.  Thing.  Heb. and Sept. "He told her all his heart." --- That is to say, consecrated, is added by the Vulg.  H. --- Men.  Was the hair the physical, or only the moral, cause of his wonderful strength?  It is generally believed that it was only a moral cause, or a token appointed by God, that as long as Samson retained his hair he should be endued with such force.  The pagans relate, that the kingdom of Nisus and of Pterelaus depended on a fatal lock of hair, which their daughters cut off.  Crinis inhœrebat, magni fiducia regni.  Ovid, Met. viii.  Apoll. 2.  C.

 

Ver. 18.  To me.  Heb. "to her."  Lah instead of li, perhaps in all the printed editions except the Complutensian, which has corrected the mistake, and is authorized by some MSS.  Kennicott.

 

Ver. 19.  Knees, by some soporiferous draught, as on the other occasions.  M. --- Barber.  He only produced the razor, or rather a pair of scissors, such as were used to shear sheep.  Barbers were unknown at Rome for 454 years; and the ancient Greeks looked with indignation upon those who introduced the custom of shaving among them.  Plin. vii. 59.  The Hebrews did not cut all their beard, and generally let the hair of their head grow long.  Samson wore his curled, which is still the fashion among some people. --- And began.  Sept. "he began to be humbled, (C.) or rendered abject, and his strength," &c.  Heb. "she began to render him contemptible"  H.

 

              "But what is strength without a double share

              Of wisdom? vast, unwieldy, burdensome." --- Milton's Samson.

 

Ver. 20.  Myself.  This might insinuate that he was bound, though it may only mean that he will extricate himself from the hands of the Philistines.  C. --- We read of no bands on this occasion.  But the loss of the sign of his being a Nazarite was Samson's greatest misfortune, and rendered him less formidable than if he had been bound with chains of adamant.  He was not sensible of his loss at first; or he himself was uninformed that his strength depended on the preservation of his hair.  The cutting it off was wholly involuntary, so that, if he sinned by losing it, we must conclude that he was guilty in putting himself in the power of a woman, by revealing a secret which he ought to have kept to himself.  Other Nazarites were surely under no such obligation.  If a barbarous ruffian or infidel had, by violence, deprived them of their sacred ornament, or touched them with something unclean, they would have been obliged to submit to the legal purifications, but no blame could have attached to them.  H. --- From him, as to the gratuitous and supernatural degree of strength.  M.

 

Ver. 21.  Chains.  Heb. and Sept. add, "of brass," which were more ancient than those of iron or of steel.  Brass was generally used instead of the latter, for knives, &c.  C. --- Gaza, the place where he had lately given such an instance of strength, v. 3.  H. --- Grind.  Before the invention of wind or of water mills, the ancients forced their meanest slaves to grind with a hand-mill, consisting of two large stones.  Many such are made in the isle of Milo.  The mill was the common place for slaves, who had given an offence not deserving of death.  Isai. xlvii. 2.  Lament. v. 13.  Cod. Theod. de pœnit.  Apuleius describes their condition as most pitiful; half naked, with their hair half cut, their feet chained, disfigured with scourges, &c.  Metam. ix.  Herodotus (iv. 2.) says, that the Scythians put out the eyes of their slaves, that they may not become dizzy with turning round vessels of milk, upon which these people feed.  Such was the condition of Samson.  S. Jerom (in Isaias xlvii.) mentions a foolish interpretation of the Rabbins, as if the Philistines obliged this strong man to have children by their women.  See Thalmud, sutah 1, fol. 10.  C.  Job xxxi. 10.  H. --- Samson "laboured hard, that he might not eat his bread for nothing."  Lyra.

 

Ver. 22.  Again.  Heb. adds, "as when he was shaven."  H. --- He was in prison three or four months.  M. --- As his hair grew his strength returned, because he entered into himself and did penance, so that he was restored to the rank and privileges of a Nazarite.  C.  M.

 

Ver. 23.  Dagon.  Probably the derceto, whom Diodorus (3,) represents with the head of a woman, and the rest of the body like a fish, the chief object of adoration at Ascalon.  C. --- Dagon may signify "wheat;" and hence Eusebius (præp. 1,) styles him "the ploughing Jupiter," or "a fish." --- Hands.  For this purpose they were offering sacrifices of thanksgiving, (M.) which they did not only when they first took Samson, but probably on all their great festivals, till the hero's death.  They could not but excite the indignation and zeal of this great judge, and God resented the indignity offered to himself.  They cursed Samson, (H.) as the Sichemites had done Abimelec on a similar occasion.  C. ix. 27.  M.

              God "will not connive or linger, thus provoked,

              but will arise and his great name assert."---Milton, v. 466.

 

Ver. 25.  Played.  Dancing in a ridiculous manner, (Montanus) running against the walls, or falling down, so as to make the people laugh, (Lyran) or rather (H.) Serarius gathers from the Sept. that "they buffetted him," and made a sport of him.  M. --- It is not at all probable that Samson would act the ape before the Philistines; but, in attempting to keep off the rabble with many a fruitless blow, against his will he might make them merry.  C. --- He appeared before them in the garb of a slave, covered with the dust of the mill, (Salien) like our Saviour in a fool's garment.  H. --- Two pillars.  The temples of Hercules, at Tyre and in Africa, had the same number.  Porphyr. Abst. 2. --- The temple of Dagon was supported on wooden pillars standing near each other.  People might see down from the roof.  Serarius. --- We read that the theatre of Rome rested on one pivot, and the amphitheatre on two. Ecce populus Romanus universus, says Pliny, (xxxvi. 15,) binis cardinibus sustinetur.  C. --- The roofs of the Philistine temples were flat, and galleries all around them, so that an immense crowd might be collected, (M.) to gaze on this terror of their country, now their prey.  They had forgotten how he had formerly carried off their gates, or they concluded that his amazing strength was gone for ever.  H.

 

Ver. 27.  Play.  It is not clear from the text, whether the 3000 were distinct from those who were below.  It seems this is the number of all the slain, (C.) as Josephus asserts.  But the Protestants insert, "the lords of the Philistines were there: and there were upon the roof," &c. which shews that they understand it in the same sense as the Vulg. and the Sept. which distinguish these outside spectators from those who filled the house, and were in company with the princes.  H.

 

Ver. 28.  Revenge myself.  This desire of revenge was out of zeal for justice against the enemies of God and his people; and not out of private rancour and malice of heart.  Ch. --- He was judge of his people, and concerned for their wrongs: God, by miracle, testified that he approved of his sentiments.  C. -- Sept. insinuates that the cry of Samson was accompanied with tears, (eklause.)  It was the cry of the heart, which is most eloquent with God.  Heb. and Sept. "strengthen me yet this once, O God, and I will repay," &c.  H.

 

Ver. 29.  Both the.  Heb. adds, "middle" pillars, so that their fall occasioned that the whole temple, (C.) excepting perhaps some of the ruins, which are still shewn at Gaza.  Button.

              "He tugged, he shook till down they came, and drew

              The whole roof after them with bursts of thunder."  Milton.  H.

 

Ver. 30.  Let me die.  Literally, let my soul die.  Samson did not sin on this occasion, though  he was indirectly the cause of his own death.  Because he was moved to what he did, by a particular inspiration of God, who also concurred with him by a miracle, in restoring his strength upon the spot, in consequence of his prayer.  Samson, by dying in this manner, was a figure of Christ, who by his death overcame all his enemies.  Ch.  W. --- S. Aug. says, "he was not under a human delusion, but divinely inspired...Who will accuse his obedience?"  De C. i. 21. and 26. &c.  And S. Bern. (de præc. 3.) observes that he would have sinned, if he had not received a particular inspiration.  But many think that he might have acted as he did, without it, in quality of judge, as he might intend primarily to avenge his people and the glory of God.  He was willing to sacrifice his life for this purpose, though he would have preserved it, if it had been in his power.  Cajet.  Lessius, &c. --- The Church honours many virgin martyrs, (C.) who have thrown themselves into fire or water, in similar dispositions.  S. Amb. says, "it is to be presumed that their zeal came from God."  De Virg. iii. 7.  He mentions S. Pelagia, and her mother and sisters, and S. Soteris, a relation of his, whose memory is honoured on the 10th of February.  S. Apollonia's feast occurs the day before.  "She leapt into the fire, having her breast enkindled with a stronger flame of the holy spirit.  Brev. Rom.  See the fact of Razas, 2 Mac. xiv. 37.  H. --- So that the revelation of S. Mathildes doubting of his, Solomon's, Origen's, and Trajan's salvation, as if God would thus keep mankind in fear, seems to be a fabrication.  Baronius.  A.D. 604.  S. Paul ranks Samson among the saints.  Heb. xi. 32. --- Life.  Express mention is made of 1000 slain by Samson, besides the great numbers, which excited the astonishment of the Philistines.  C. xv. 8.  But on this occasion he destroyed 3000 at once, and the death of all the princes made the slaughter more terrible, (C.) insomuch that the people being without a head, were glad to let Samson's brethren take away his body without molestation, as they have every reason to fear that the Israelites would now fall upon them.  Salien. --- If 3000 perished on the outside of the temple, (H.) Serarius concludes that not less than 20,000 were destroyed in all.

 

Ver. 31.  Twenty.  "Why then, says the Thalmud of Jerusalem, does the Scripture allow him 40?  That thou mightest understand the Philistines were kept in awe, by the fear of him, for 20 years after his decease."  The Hebrew copies seems to have varied.  Drusius. --- Some refuse the Samson the title of judge, (Masius) as they suppose (H.) that Heli filled that office at the same time.  But there might be several in different parts of the country, and Heli might administer sacred things, while Samson acted in the character of a warrior.  C. --- Salien believes that Heli only commenced high priest and judge at the death of Samson, and continued for 40 years, though he was 58 years old when he entered upon office, A. 2900, A.C. 1153.  Samson prefigured the Messias, not only in death, but also in his annunciation, birth, name, and in many particulars of his life.  He was a Nazarite: Jesus receives that title even from his enemies.  Samson marries a foreign woman; is delivered by his brethren of Juda into the hands of his enemies; judges and delivers his people.  Christ, the sun of justice, calls the Gentiles; is betrayed by Judas, and abandoned to the fury of the Romans; is appointed Judge and Saviour of all.  He embraces the cross, as Samson did the pillars, and by his humiliations redeemed the world.  The pagan temple falls and crushes the idolaters.  The Jews are overwhelmed in the ruins of their temple and city; and the earth trembles at the death of Christ.  He is buried with honour, notwithstanding the malice of his enemies, (C.) as the body of Samson was taken from the midst of the raging inhabitants of Gaza, and interred peaceably in his father's tomb.  The fabulous account of the Phœnician, or of another (H.) Hercules, who lived about this time, seems  to have been chiefly taken from the history of Samson.  Both encountered many difficulties, and perished by a woman's malice.  Hercules never used a sword, and we do not read that Samson had any.  C. --- "He was possessed of an incomparable strength both of mind and body, says Josephus, (v. 10,) which he employed for the destruction of the enemy even to the last breath.  His being deceived by a woman, we ought to attribute to human weakness, which is prone to such faults.  In all other respects, his virtue entitles him to eternal praise."  H.

              "Tax not divine disposal; wisest men

              Have err'd, and by bad women been deceived;

              And shall again, pretend they ne'er so wise.  Sams. Agon. v. 210.

 

 








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