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The authorities for the lists of the early Popes are as follows

St Irenaeus (Bishop of Lyons in the first half of the second century) gives the names, but not the lengths of the

reigns, up to St Eleutherius.

Eusebius (the historian, to whom we owe the greater part of our knowledge of the first three centuries, of the

Church) gives both names and dates up to St Marcellinus.

An unknown Chronologist gives a list up to Liberius.

St Jerome includes St Damasus, of whom he was the secretary.

The 'Liber Pontificalis' continues the Chronologist's list up to the end of the Middle Ages (Martin V) but is

sometimes inaccurate as to the dates of events.

The dates of the earliest Popes, up to St Victor I, are very uncertain. After that time they are tolerably reliable. The compiler is indebted to Ecclesia (Blond et Gay, Paris) for much valuable information.

1. -St Peter. From the Gospel we learn that Our Lord placed him over the whole Church. The Acts give the events of his ministry in Palestine. He passed some time in Antioch in Syria. It is also probable that he preached the Gospel in the greater part of what we now call Asia Minor (Bithynia and Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia and the provinces on the west coast). It is historically certain that he came to Rome. The House of Hermes, excavated on the Via Appia in 1915, contains many inscriptions showing that he used the house for his ministry. He was put to death in Rome under Nero (?64 or 67).

2. -St Linus (67-79) ? or 65-76. He is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass next to the Apostles, and may be the disciple of whom St Paul- writing to St Timothy from Rome-makes mention (II Timothy iv. 21).

3.-St Cletus (or Anacletus) (79-91)? or 77-88. St Jerome calls him sometimes by one name, sometimes by the other. A few old documents, by mistake, took them for two separate Popes.

4.-St Clement (92-101)? Or 88-97. A celebrated Epistle of his is still extant. Its date may be put at about 96, and it is one of the oldest evidences for the Primacy of the Roman See.

5.-St Evaristus (101-109) or 98-106.

6.-St Alexander I (109-116) or 106-115.

7.-St Sixtus I (117-126) ? or 116-126.

8.-St Telesphorus (126-136). Like all his predecessors he was, according to both St Irenaeus and Eusebius, a martyr.

9.-St Hyginus (137-141).

10.-St Pius I (141-155).

According to the 'Fragment of Muratori,' and the 'Liber Pontificalis,' this Pope was the brother of Hermes the writer, author of 'The Shepherd.' During this reign, Gnosticism (a complicated heresy which considered matter as evil) gave trouble to the church. St Justin, martyr, an important writer, flourished.

11.-St Anicetus (155-166). Eusebius, quoting St Irenaeus, says that St Polycarp (disciple of St John the Evangelist) came to Rome-probably in 154-to ask for a settlement as to the date of Easter. The question could not then be settled.

12.-St Soter (166-175).

Eusebius, quoting Denys of Corinth, makes this Pope author of an Epistle to the Corinthians.

13.-St Eleutherius (175-189) was visited, about 177, by St Irenaeus, later Bishop of Lyons.

14.-St Victor I (189-199) emphatically affirmed the Primacy of the Roman See, notably in the question of the date of Easter. He opposed the Gnostic (see No. 10) and Monarchian heresies (the last a heresy about the Blessed Trinity).

15.-St Zephyrinus (199-217) also opposed the Monarchian heresy, and condemned the Montanists-a revivalist movement that developed into a sect apart.

16.-St Calixtus I (217-222). As a deacon he was administrator of the catacomb on the Appian Way which bears his name. As Pope he greatly modified the severe penitential discipline in use in the first age of the Church. For this Tertullian and Hippolytus expostulated violently with him and even created a schism.

17. -St Urban I (222-230).

18.-St Pontian (230-235) approved of the condemnation of Origen by Demetrius, Bishop of Alexandria. This Pope was banished to Sardinia, and there died of the ill-treatment he received.

19.-St Anterus (21 Nov., 235-3 Jan., 236). His tomb was discovered by de Rossi in 1854, in the catacomb of St Calixtus, as well as those of SS Fabian, Lucius, and Eutychian (Papal crypt).�'20�'St. Fabian (236-250) divided the City into seven deaconries, organised the administration of the catacombs, and the distribution of alms to the poor. He was martyred under Decius, 20 Jan., 250.

21.-St Cornelius (April, 251- 253). opposed the schism of the rigorist Novatian.

22.-St Lucius I (25 June, 253-5 March, 254) continued to show the same leniency as his predecessor and St Cyprian had shown towards those who had sacrificed to idols but repented, a leniency contrasted with the severity of Novatian.

23.-St Stephen I (254-2 Aug., 257) opposed with vigour the error of those who would rebaptise converted heretics, and upheld the Roman doctrine against St Cyprian and the bishops of Asia Minor.

24.-St Sixtus II (31 Aug., 257-6 Aug., 258) was reconciled to St Cyprian. St Sixtus was martyred with his deacons, Felicissimus and Agapitus, some days before the deacon St Lawrence.

25.-St Dionysius (22 July, 259-26 Dec., 268) condemned Sabellianism (heresy about the Blessed Trinity).

26.-St Felix I (269-274) approved of the condemnation of Paul of Samosata, pronounced by the synod of Antioch.

27.-St Eutychian (275-?283).

28.-St Caius (? 17 Dec., 283-22nd April, 296).

29.-St Marcellinus (30 June, 296-26 April, or 25 Oct., 304).

30.-St Marcellus 1 (308-16 Jan., 309), reorganised the see, rebuilding the churches destroyed in the persecution.

31.-St Eusebius (18 April- 17 Aug., 310).

32.-St Melchiades (2 July, 311-11 Jan., 314) saw the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, and the 'Edict of Milan,' giving liberty to the Church. He held a synod in Rome against the Donatists (schismatics who afterwards became heretics).

33.-St Sylvester I (314-335) erected the basilicas of St Peter (Vatican) and St John (Lateran). He delegated two Roman priests to represent him at the Council of Nicea.

34.-St Mark (18 Jan.-? Oct., 336) built two basilicas in Rome-St Mark and St Balbina.

35.-St Julius I (6 Feb., 337- 12 April, 352). A Pope who united firmness with benevolence. He defended St Athanasius against the Arians and semiArians, held a synod in Rome against Arianism (340-41), arranged the meeting of the Council of Sardica (Sofia) (342), and erected in Rome the basilica of the 12 Apostles. (Basilica Juliana).

36.-Liberius (17 May, 352-24 Sept., 366) was treated with great harshness by the emperor Constans for his refusal to condemn St Athanasius and underwent a long exile in Berea, during which the emperor set up an anti-pope, 'Felix.' Liberius has been severely judged for signing a statement of faith that could be given a heretical meaning.

37.-St Damasus I (Oct., 366- 11 Dec., 384) condemned the Apollinarists (heresy on the Incarnation), Macedoniaus (heresy on the Holy Ghost) (synods 368, 369), fixed the Canon of Scripture (374), and charged his learned secretary, St Jerome, to revise the translation of the Bible.

38.-St Siricius (17 Dec., 384- 26 Nov., 399) acted vigorously as the chief pastor of the Church. He is the author of a famous declaration of the Primacy of the Pope over the whole Church, contained in a letter of 10 Feb., 385, to Himerius of Tarragona. Through the Roman synod of 386 he forbade any episcopal consecration without the consent of the Holy See. He condemned Jovian in the synod of 392 (heresy on morals).

39.-St Anastasius I (399- 401).

40-St Innocent I (401- 12 March, 417) continued the ecclesiastical and liturgical organisation begun by St Siricius (celibacy of clergy, administration of sacraments, jurisdiction of provincial synods). His best-known decrees were those to St Victrice of Rouen, Exuperius of Toulouse, and to the Bishop of Gubbio.

41.-St Zozimus (18 March, 417-26 Dec., 418) condemned the Pelagians who had at first deceived him, and published his Epistola trazatoria against them.

42.-St Boniface (28 Dec., 418-4 Sept., 422) obtained the 'withdrawal of an edict of Theodosius II, which placed Illyria under the authority of the Patriarch of Constantinople. The Balkans began to be an apple of discord between the Holy See and Constantinople- one of the causes which led to the schism.

43.-St Celostine I (Sept., 422-July, 432). In 429 he sent St Gerrnanus of Auxerre to Britain to oppose Pelagianism. He also sent St Palladius (431) to evangelise Ireland. St Patrick (432) was destined to exercise still greater influence there. St Celestine opposed Nestorianism (heresy on the Incarnation) in a Roman synod (430) and sent three legates to represent him at the Council of Ephesus (431). He addressed a letter refuting semi-Pelagianism to the Bishops of Gaul.

44.-St Sixtus III (31 July, 432-28 March, 440) was a great builder. He restored and richly decorated St Mary Major, built St Sabina on the Aventine, and St Lawrence-outside-the-Walls. He opposed Nestorius and the Pelagian Julian of Eclanum, and had to maintain his rights over Illyria against Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople.

45.-St Leo I, the Great (29 Sept., 440-10 Nov., 461) was one of the great Popes of history and one of the most illustrious defenders of the Faith. He opposed the Pelagians and Manichaeans in Italy, the Priscillianists in Spain, the Monophysites in the East, against whom, in a famous letter, he set forth the dogma of the two natures in Our Lord. He dominated the Council of Chalcedon (451), maintained his rights in Illyria, and established a permanent legate at the court of Constantinople. He rejected the 28th article of the Council of Chalcedon, which gave second rank in the Church to the Patriarch of Constantinople. He is also famous for his courageous attitude at the time of the invasions of Attila and Genseric.

46.-St Hilary (461�'28 Feb., 468) exercised his authority vigorously with regard to ecclesiastical discipline in Southern Gaul and Spain.

47.-St Simplicius (468-10 March, 483) interposed to put down the Monophysites in Alexandria, and resisted the attempt of the Patriarch of Constantinople to claim second rank in the Church.

48.-St Felix III (483-492) energetically opposed the Monophysites, denounced the Henoticon (a decree of union with heretics) inspired by Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople, whom he excommunicated. This occasioned a schism for 35 years. St Felix encouraged the faithful in Africa, who were persecuted by Gunthamond, king of the Vandals. (This Pope should be called Felix II, because an antipope of this name, during the exile of Pope Liberius, has been counted in some lists by mistake).

49.-St Gelasius I (1 March, 492-21 Nov., 496). A great Pope, he upheld the authority of the Holy See against Acacius, was on good terms with Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, opposed the Manichaeans and Pelagians, and put an end to the pagan festival of the Lupercalia.

50.-Anastasius II (496-498) congratulated Clovis on his conversion, opposed the schism of Acacius, and condemned Traducianism (heresy on creation).

51.-St Symmachus (22 Nov., 498-19 July, 514).

52.-St Hormisdas (20 July, 514-6 Aug., 523). The schism of Acacius (484-519) came to an end, the bishops of the East adopting the Confession of Faith, called the-Formula of Hormisdas, in which the Primacy of the Roman See is strongly set forth.

53.-St John I (13 Aug., 523-18 May, 526). Sent by Theodoric the Great to Constantinople, he crowned the Emperor Justin I. On his return he was thrown into prison by Theodoric (an Arian) in reprisal for measures against the Arians by Justin I. There he died. He is honoured as a martyr.

54.-St Felix IV (526-530), being consulted by St Caesarius of Arles on the subject of semiPelagianism, sent a doctrinal letter, which was proclaimed as the law of the Church at the Council of Orange (529). Felix IV nominated Boniface II as his successor.

55.-Boniface II (17 Sept., 530-Oct., 532) confirmed the decrees of the Council of Orange, thus giving them universal authority. He again maintained the rights of the Holy See over Illyria.

56.-John II (2 Nov., 532- 8 May, 535). He was Mercurius, priest of the parish of St Clement, and the first to change his name on becoming Pope, a custom which has since become general.

57. -St Agapitus 1 (535- 22 April, 536).

58.-St Silverius (536�'? 538). After the taking of Rome by Belisarius he was arrested, owing to the intrigues of the ambitious Vigilius, and died in exile at a date which is not known. Vigilius had taken his place on 29 March, 537.

59.-VigiIius (538-7 June, 555). Having usurped the Papal throne by illegitimate means, Vigilius received universal recognition after the death of Silverius, and thus became really Pope. Contrary to the expectation of the Empress, to whom he owed his elevation, he contended for the Catholic Faith with Justinian. He passed eight years at Constantinople at the time of the dispute of the 'Three Chapters,' finally confirmed the decrees of the Council of Con- stantinople (553) and died at Syracuse on his return.

60,-Pelagius I (555-561).

61-John III (17 July, 561- 13 July, 574).

62.-Benedict I (2 June, 575- 30 July, 579).

63.-Pelagius 11 (26 Nov., 579 -7 Feb., 590) had much to suffer from the Lombards. He protested against the title of 'Universal Patriarch' being assumed by the Patriarch of Constantinople (John the Faster) and rejoiced in the conversion of the Visigoths of Spain.

64.- St Gregory I the Great (3 Sept., 590- 11 March, 604). One of the greatest popes of history. He was born about 540 of an illustrious family, and was made Praetor of Rome, an office he abandoned to become a Benedictine monk. On his father's death he gave his palace on the Coelian Hill to be the monastery of St Andrew (it is from this that two of our English Cardinals-Manning and Vaughan-received the title 'of St Andrew and St Gregory on the Coelian Hill '). He became abbot, and Papal envoy to Constantinople. Being anxious for the conversion of the heathen and especially interested in England, he obtained leave to work there himself, and even set out, but the clamour of the people obliged the Pope to recall him. When he became Pope himself he sent St Augustine and his companions on this mission (597) and planned the organisation of the Church in England�'two archbishops each with 12 suffragans, and Canterbury to be the Primatial See.

St Gregory opposed heresy and simony, reformed the ecclesiastical chant-hence called Gregorian- fixed the Canon of the Mass, and left numerous writings on Christian life and doctrine; he favoured the expansion of the monastic life, and did much to develop Christian spirituality. Owing to the neglect of the emperors, St Gregory was obliged to take upon himself much of time civil government of Rome. To protest against the growing ambition of the Patriarchs of Constantinople he took the title 'Servant of the servants of God,' which is still used by the Pope today.

65.-St Sabinian (13 Sept., 604-22 June, 606).

66.-Boniface III (19 Feb.- 12 Nov., 607).

67.-St Boniface IV (15 Sept., 608-25 May, 615). He arranged with Mellitus, Bishop of London, certain questions concerning points of discipline, in which the British tradition differed from the actual usage of Rome.

68.-St Deusdedit (19 Oct., 615-8 Nov., 618).

69.-Boniface V (23 Dec., 619-25 Oct., 625) continued the organisation of the Church in England, and in 625 granted Primatial rights to the see of Canterbury according to the design of St Gregory the Great.

70.-Honorius I (3 Nov., 625- 12 Oct., 638) ended the schism with Aquileia which had lasted since the dispute of the Three Chapters. He failed to grasp the meaning of the theory of the Patriarch Sergius of Constantinople concerning the two wills in Christ; this had the effect of encouraging the Monothelite heresy, and for this he was condemned by the next General Council afterwards. He ordained for England that when either of the metropolitans died, his successor should be consecrated by the other, so as to save the long journey to Rome.

71 .-Severinus (elected the 2nd of Oct., 638, consecrated 28 May, 640-2 Aug., 640). Condemned the Ecthesis (a decree by Heraclius in favour of the Monothelites).

72.-John IV (24 Dec., 640- 12 Oct., 642). Condemned the Monothelite heresy in a Roman synod (640), and explained the mistake of Honorius (see No. 70).

73.-Theodore I (24 Nov., 642-13 May, 649) energetically opposed the Monothelite heresy, which was upheld by the Patriarchs Pyrrhus and Paul of Constantinople.

74.-St Martin I (July, 649- 653, 655). By his condemnation of the Monothehites at the Lateran Council (Oct. 649) he drew on himself the hatred of Constans II and was, by order of this emperor, arrested in the Lateran Palace (653) and taken to Constantinople. He was condemned to death, treated with cruelty, and banished to the Chersonese, where he died (655). He is honoured as a martyr.

75.-St Eugene I (10 April, 654-657). He was elected during the life-time of St Martin. He tried to reconcile the emperors with the Church, but without sacrificing orthodoxy.

76.-St VitaIian (30 July, 657-27 Jan. 672) sent a learned Greek monk, Theodore, to be Archbishop of Canterbury, with full jurisdiction over a11 the Church of the Angles (the Saxon priest who had been sent to Rome for this office had died before consecration).

77.-Adeodatus (672-676) opposed the Monothelites.

78.-Donus (676-11 April, 678) obliged the Archbishop of Ravenna to acknowledge the authority of the Holy See.

79.-St Agatho (678-681) condemned the Monothehites in a synod at Rome (680) and, with the emperor, called the 6th General Council, sending to it the Definition of Faith on the Monothelite heresy. He sent a visitor to the Angles, to inquire into their faith, and limited the number of English bishops to one metropolitan and eleven suffragans.

80.-St Leo II (elected Dec., 681, consecrated 17 Aug., 682- 3 July, 683). He confirmed the decrees of the 6th General Council (Constantinople, 681), had them translated into Latin and sent them to the bishops of Spain; put an end to the schism of Ravenna, established a second English metropolitan at York.

81-St Benedict II (elected 683, consecrated July, 684- 8 May, 685). He endeavoured to make all the West receive the decrees of the 6th General Council.

82.-John V (23 July, 685-2 Aug., 686).

83.-Conon (Oct., 686-22 Sept., 687).

84.-St Sergius I (15 Dec., 687-Sept., 701) refused to confirm the decisions of the Council 'in Trullo' (a council at Constantinople, composed almost entirely of Eastern bishops, whose decrees on discipline were animated by a spirit of hostility to Rome) (692). He consecrated St Willibrord as Archbishop of Frisia and introduced the custom of singing the Agnus Dei at Mass.

85.-John VI (30 Oct., 701- 11 Jan., 705). He-like two of his predecessors-did justice to St Wilfrid when driven from his see by the kings of Mercia and Northumbria.

86.-John VII (1 March, 705- 18 Oct., 707) refused to confirm the decrees of the Council 'in Trullo.'

87.-Sisinnius (18 Jan.-4 Feb., 708).

88.-Constantine I (25 March, 708-9 April, 715) received the submission of the Archbishop of Ravenna. He made the journey to Nicomedia, at the command of the . emperor Justinian II, who desired his confirmation of the Council 'in Trullo.' The Pope, however, refused to confirm it.

firm it.

-St Gregory II (19 May, 715-11 Feb., 731) resisted the incursions of the Lombards, and opposed the emperor Leo III, who wished to abolish the use of images; a Roman synod condemned this error (729). This Pope consecrated St Boniface, an English monk, and sent him as bishop to be the apostle of Germany.

90.-St Gregory III (18 March, 731-10 Dec., 741) broke off relations with the Court of Constantinople on account of the heresy of the emperor. Threatened by the Lombards, he decided to apply to the Franks, but Charles Martel declined all military intervention. This Pope made St Boniface archbishop, and through him organised the Church in Germany, and reformed the Church in Gaul.

91.-St Zachary (3 Dec., 741- 23 March, 752) tried to arrest the progress of the Lombards, and obtained a truce for 20 years (742).The most notable feature of this reign is the Pope's steady support of St Boniface. He approved of the title of King of the Franks taken by Pepin the Short (751).

92.-Stephen 11 (752-26 April, 757). He concluded a truce for 40 years with Aistulf, king of the Lombards, but as it was not faithfully kept he crossed the Alps-The first Pope to do so- and went to ask the intervention of Pepin, whom he crowned with his sons in St Denis (754). Pepin invaded italy, defeated Aistulf, and, despite the protests of the emperor, made over a great part of the conquered territory to the Pope. This is the origin of the Papal States. (In some lists this Pope is called Stephen III, and his successors of the same name are all advanced by one number. The reason is that before him there was a Pope Stephen, who died before consecration, and is not included in contemporary lists.)

93.-St Paul I (29 May, 757- 28 June, 767) brother of Stephen II, .whose policy of alliance with the Franks he continued, in order to hold in check Desiderius, king of the Lombards. He took under his protection the monks expelled from Constantinople by the Iconoclasts.

94-Stephen III (elected 1, consecrated 7 Aug., 768-24 Jan., 772). This Pope was elected after a year of terrible strife and war, caused by the nobles' imposition of a layman-Constantine-as Pope. Whereupon the right of electing Popes was taken from the laity, and restricted to the clergy of Rome. The use of images was proclaimed orthodox.

95.-Adrian I (1 Feb., 772- 26 Dec., 795) was aided by Charlemagne against the Lombard king, whose kingdom was suppressed in 774. Charlemagne confirmed the 'Donation of Pepin' (Papal States), but refused to receive the decision of the 2nd General Council of Nicea (787) about the veneration of images. In 787 the Pope sent two legates to visit England, and he established a third metropolitan see at Lichfield.

96.-St Leo III (27 Dec., 795- 12 June, 816). A revolt of the Romans obliged him to seek refuge at Paderborn. Charlemagne came in person to Rome to investigate the accusations made against him. On this occasion (Christmas, 800) St Leo. 111 crowned him emperor of the Romans, which gave him the duty of defending the rights of the Holy See. In order, however, not to irritate Constantinople further, the Pope refused Charlemagne's petition to have the ' Filioque' inserted in the Creed at this time.

97.-Stephen IV (elected 12, consecrated 22 June, 816-24 Jan., 817).

98.-St Paschal I (25 Jan., 817-824).

99.-Eugenius 11 (6 June, 824- 27 Aug, 827). In concert with the emperor, this Pope promulgated the Constitution of Lothair, which gave back to the laity their share in the election of the Popes and made the emperor the judge of the validity of the election (Nov. 824).

100.-Valentine (Aug-Oct., 827).

101.-Gregory IV (end of 827- Jan., 844) named St Anschar t795-872 his legate for the Scandinavian missions. He introduced the Feast of All Saints into the Roman calendar.

102-Sergius 11 (844-27 Jan., 847) a weak and venal ruler. In 846 the Saracens sacked the tombs of the Apostles.

103-St Leo IV (elected Jan., consecrated 10 April; 847-17 Oct., 855) respected the rights of the empire, whilst maintaining those of the Holy See, especially in regard to Papal elections. He blessed and gave confirmation to Alfred, son of Ethelwulf-later King Alfred the Great.

104.-Benedict III (29 Sept., 855-7 April, 858). (It is here that the fable-of Eastern origin perhaps-about 'Pope Joan' is placed. She is supposed to have reigned from 855 to 858.)

105.-St Nicholas I (24 April, 858-13 Nov., 867). He defended the laws and the rights of the Church with great energy, annulled the election of Photius to the see of Constantinople, and welcomed the Bulgarians to the Latin rite.

106.-Adrian 11 (14 Dec., 867- 14 Dec., 872) upheld the rights of Hincmar, Bishop of Laon, against Hincmar of Rheims and Charles the Bald. He condemned Photius (8th General Council, 869) but had the sorrow of seeing the Bulgarians fall back into the obedience of Constantinople. Moravia, however, converted by St Cyril and St Methodius, remained Roman.

107.-John VIII (14 Dec., 872-16 Dec., 882) crowned Charles the Bald emperor (Christmas, 875). Being exiled from Rome by a party faction, he went to France and there crowned Louis the Stammerer king. He also crowned the emperor Charles the Fat (881), but received no help from him against the Saracens. He encouraged the apostolate of. St Cyril and St Methodius, and approved of the Slav liturgy. During this reign, Photius obtained a new council (879), which rehabilitated him, and which John VIII confirmed.

108.-Martin II (Dec., 882- May, 884). This is the first instance of a bishop being elected Pope (he was Bishop of Cervetri). This Pope was, in fact, called Marinus I, but subsequent catalogues called him Martin II, and his later namesake Martin III.

109.-Blessed Adrian III (17 May, 884-Sept. 885).

110.-Stephen V (885-14 Sept., 891. He put the emperor Basil the Macedonian on his guard against Photius. In a letter to Swatopluk,�'Duke of Moravia, he forbade the use of the Slavonic liturgy, which had been sanctioned by John VIII.

111.-Formosus (6 Oct., 891- 4 April, 896) was Bishop of Porto. He had been deposed and excommunicated by John VIII (30 June, 876) but freed from ecclesiastical censure by Marinus (Martin II, 883). He was a capable and worthy Pope.

112.-Stephen VI (896-Aug., 897). He tried his predecessor's corpse for having left his see of Porto for that of Rome, and annulled his ordinations. However, a rising took place, and Stephen VI was strangled in prison.

113.-Romanus (Aug-Oct. or Nov., 897). He was driven from his throne.

114.-Theodore II (Dec., 897, He rehabilitated Formosus, and regularised the ordinations made by him, which Stephen VI had annulled. It is probable that he perished by a violent death.

115.-John IX (Jan., 898- April, 900). lie confirmed the rehabilitation of Formosus, and decreed that henceforth the Papal elections should take place in the presence of a delegate of the emperor

henceforth the Papal elections should take place in the presence of a delegate of the emperor

-Benedict IV (May or June, 900-July or Aug., 903). This Pope was a reformer. The Church passed now through a terrible century, in which the intrigues of worldly and ambitious persons and factions in many instances determined Papal elections and subjected the Papacy to a degrading and vexatious dependence.

117.-Leo V (5 Aug-S Sept., 903) murdered.

118.-Christopher (autumn 903-end of May, 904) dethroned Leo V, and was himself dethroned and murdered by Sergius III.

119.-Sergius III (904-911) owed his elevation to the family called Theophylact, whose most notorious members were three bad women, Theodora the Elder, and her two daughters, Theodora the Younger, and Marozia.

120.-Anastasius III (911- 913).

121.-Lando (Aug., 913- March 914).

122.-John X (March, 914- May, 928). Owed his elevation to the Papacy to the influence of Theodora. He struggled, however, energetically against the Saracens. Overthrown and murdered by Marozia.

123.-Leo VI (5 June, 928- 5 Feb., 929). Rome was dominated during this Pontificate by Marozia, who appointed this Pope and his two successors.

124.-Stephen VII (929-931).

125.-John XI (March 931-Dec., 935) son of Marozia.

126.-Leo VII (9 Jan., 936- July, 939). Appointed Pope, like his three successors, by Marozia's other son, Alberic. Reformed the monasteries with the help of St Odo, Abbot of Cluny.

127.-Stephen VIII (939-942).

128.-Martin III or Marinus II (942-946). This was a troubled time for the whole of Italy- feudal wars and incursions of the Saracens.

129.-Agapitus 11 (946-955).

130-John XII (16 Dec., 955- 14 May, 964). He was Octavian, son of Alberic II, and was made Pope at 18 by the influence of his family. He is generally said to have been a man of scandalous morals-one of the few Popes of whom this can be said. He crowned Otto I as emperor at Rome, with Adelaide his wife (962). The emperor later claimed to 'depose' the Pope, and drove him from his throne. He regained it, but was murdered.

131-Benedict V (964). His election is of doubtful validity.

132.-Leo VIII (964-March, 965). His election is of doubtful validity; he is not counted in the Annuario Pofftificio.

133.-John XIII (1 Oct., 965- 5 Sept., 972). He relied on the support of Otto I, who protected him against the revolts of the Romans. He crowned Otto II, 25 Dec., 967.

134.-Benedict VI (19 Jan., 973-July 974) 'deposed' and murdered by factious nobles. (Between Benedict VI and Benedict VII some lists have put in a Donus II, who never existed. It is simply a copyist's mistake.)

135.-Benedict VII (974-Oct., 983), appointed by the emperor. This Pope tried to reform abuses in the Church, especially by laws against simony.

136.-John XIV (10 Dec., 983- 20 Aug., 984). Pietro Campanova, who had been Bishop of Pavia. An excellent Pope, most desirous of making the needed reforms in the Church. Probably murdered by the anti-pope Boniface VII.

137.-John XV (Aug., 985- March, 996) was a learned Pope, and a friend of the Cluniac monks, but too much attached to the interests of his relations. He was the first Pope to perform a canonisation properly so-called-that of St Ulrich (993).

(The old lists counted two Popes between John XIV and John XV, Boniface VII (Franco) who was certainly an anti-pope, and another John XV, supposed to have been elected but never consecrated. In reality he did not exist. It was this which changed the true order of the Popes named John, from John XXI onwards. Moreover a John XVI has been counted who was an antipope, supported' by Crescentius II against Gregory V (997-998.)

138.-Gregory V (3 May, 996- 18 Feb., 999) appointed by the emperor. The first German Pope. He fought energetically against simony, and made Robert, King of France, respect the marriage laws. Poisoned by the nobles.

139-Sylvester II (999-12 May, 1003). Gerbert, born in Auvergne-the first French Pope. He tried, in concert with the energetic emperor Otto III, who had appointed him, to organise the Christian world- gave the title of king to St Stephen of Hungary, founded the Archbishopric of Gnesen, in Poland, and that of Gran, in Hungary.

140.-John XVII (13 June- 6 Nov., 1003). This Pope and his two successors were the nominees of the nobles- all-powerful since the death of Otto III (1002).

141.-John XVIII (25 Dec., 1003-July 1009).

142.-Sergius IV (1009-1012).

143.-Benedict VIII (20 April, 1012-9 April, 1024) Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, raised to the Papacy through the influence of his kindred. Crowned St Henry II, emperor, and on this occasion introduced the 'Filioque' into the Creed. He was a Pope who worked for the reform of the Church. He visited St Henry at Bamberg, in 1020, and consecrated the cathedral in that city.

144.-John XIX (25 June, 1024-6 Dec., 1032), brother of 'the last Pope, but a bad Pope. He published the first indulgence to which was attached the giving of alms as a condition.

145.-Benedict IX (1033-1044) Theophylact. Raised to the Papal dignity in spite of his youth by family influence-he was the nephew of the last two Popes. He was driven from his throne by the Romans (1036), restored by Conrad II, a second time driven away, and his office taken by Sylvester III (1044). Benedict died about 1049.

by Conrad II, a second time driven away, and his office taken by Sylvester III (1044). Benedict died about 1049.

-Sylvester III (Feb. to April, 1044). His election is of doubtful validity, and his reign ended with the return of Benedict IX.

147.-Gregory VI (5 May, 1045-20 Dec., 1046, died 1047) John Gratian. He bought the tiara, that is, offered Benedict money, in order to get him to resign his claim, as he considered him unworthy to be Pope. Gregory was a good, charitable, and popular man, but was deposed, together with the two other claimant Benedict IX and Sylvester III, by the emperor, Henry III, at the Council of Sutri. He died at Cologne. His election is of doubtful validity.

148.-Clement II (24 Dec., 1046-9 Oct., 1047) Suidger of Saxony, Bishop of Bamberg named by Henry III. He tried to reform abuses in the Church: murdered.

149.-Damasus II (17 July-9 Aug.,. 1045) Poppo, Bishop of Brixen, an excellent Pope named by Henry III.

150.-St Leo IX (12 Feb., 1049-19 April, 1054). Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg, in Alsace, Bishop of Toul from 1027. He showed zeal for the reformation of ecclesiastical abuses. He was named Pope by Henry III. He then undertook journeys of visitation, and presided in person over the Councils of Lateran, Pavia, Rheims, and Mayence, fighting against lay-investitures, simony, and the .corruption of the clergy. He took such men as Hildebrand, Humbert of Moyenmoutier, and Hugh of Cluny to help him. The schism of the Greek Church was accomplished finally under his reign, though Michael Cerularius alone was actually excommunicated (16 July, 1054).

151.-Victor 11(13 April, 1055-28 July, 1057) Count Gebhard of Dollenstein, Bishop of Richstadt. The last Pope to be named by an emperor. He held a great Council of reform at Florence, and sent Hildebrand and other legates to promote reform in France (Councils of Lyons and Toulouse, 1055, 1056).

152.-Stephen IX (2 Aug., 1057-29 March, 1058) Frederick, son of Duke Gozelo of Lorraine. He had been one of the legates sent to Constantinople against Michael Cerularius in 1054, and was the first Pope freely elected by the Roman clergy since Paschal I (No. 98). A great reformer.

153.-Nicholas II (24 Jan., 1059-19 July, 1061) Gerard of Burgundy, Bishop of Florence. He made a decree regulating finally the privilege of the cardinals to be the sole electors of the Pope and abolishingall the emperor's rights in the matter. He sought to use the Normans (Robert Guiscard) to balance the influence of the empire. He was zealous for the work of reform.

(The anti-pope, Benedict X, has been counted lawful by mistake, which puts out the numbering for Popes of this name.)

-Alexander II (1 Oct., 1061-21 April, 1073). Anselm of Baggio, near Milan, Bishop of Lucca. He was a zealous Pope and continued to fight the three great evils of the time, lay investitures, simony, and the corruption of the clergy. He was greatly helped by Hildebrand and St Peter Damian. At the end of the Saxon period in England, the growing power of the kings had led them to assume undue influence in episcopal elections. The four principal sees were held un-canonically, and the clergy as a rule were ignorant. The Pope, therefore, encouraged William the Conqueror in his project of claiming the English throne, hoping for better things from Norman rule. His legates crowned William and deposed Stigand, who had obtained the see of Canterbury from the antipope Benedict X, to which see the Pope nominated Lanfranc, an Italian monk, now Abbot of Bec.

155.-St Gregory VII (22 April, 1073-25 May, 1085). Hildebrand. One of the greatest popes of history. Born at Soana, in Tuscany, about 1020, he was associated with the Popes in all the affairs of the Church from the time of Leo IX. He aimed especially at the abolition of lay-investiture as the source of the other abuses in the Church, and here he came into violent conflict with the Emperor, Henry IV, whom be excommunicated and deposed for violating the law in this matter. Henry made his submission at Canossa (1077), but soon relapsed. St Gregory then approved of the choice of Rudolf of Suabia as king of Germany, whereupon Henry took Rome, and the Pope was only delivered by the Normans, under Robert Guiscard. He died in exile at Salerno. He has been much criticised by those who uphold the supremacy of the State over the Church. In England, William the Conqueror began the Norman tradition of 'Customs,' aimed at making the papal authority second to the royal in ecclesiastical affairs in his realm.

156.- Blessed Victor III. (elected 24 May, 1086, consecrated 9 May, 1087-16 Sept., 1087). He continued the struggle of Gregory VII against lay-investitures, and died at Monte Cassino.

157.-Blessed Urban II (12 March, 1088-29 July, 1099). Odo of Largery, born at Châtillon on the Maine (1042), Cardinal Bishop of Ostia (1078). He continued the fight against investitures, and against Henry's anti-pope, Clement III (Guikert of Ravenna). He held many synods for reforming abuses- Melfi (1089), Piacenza (1095), Clermont (1095), where he launched the first Crusade, and Ban (1098), at which St Anselm of Canterbury was present. He had come to lay before the Sovereign Pontiff the wrongs he suffered at the hands of William Rufus, who had forbidden him to go to Rome, and ordered him to renounce obedience to the Pope, except as allowed by the king. Urban II at the Council of Rome (1099), forbade any cleric henceforth to become the vassal of a layman for ecclesiastical preferment.

158.-Paschal II (1099-21 Jan., 1118) Rainieri of Bieda, near Viterbo. Continued the struggle against investitures, holding Councils at Rome (1102), Guastella (1106), Troyes (1107), Lateran (1107), Benevento (1109). In 1111 he signed a treaty with the emperor, Henry V, in which he yielded for the moment the question of investitures, but resumed the struggle again at the Lateran Council (1112), and was driven from Rome by Henry V. He confirmed the treaty called ' Truce .of God,' at the Council of Troja (1115), and refused to allow Henry I of England any exemption from the general law on investitures made by Urban II. Henry submitted.

159.-Gelasius Il (24 Jan., 1118-18 Jan., 1119).

160.-Calixtus II (elected 2, crowned 9 Feb., 1119-13 Dec., 1124) Guy of Burgundy, Archbishop of Vienne (France). A courageous opponent of lay-investiture, he had the happiness of putting an end to this struggle by the Concordat of Worms (1122), which was confirmed at the 1st General Council of the Lateran (1123). He had much trouble with Henry I of England, who had again begun to usurp the rights of the Holy See as to appointing and translating bishops, and refused for seven years to recognise the Archbishop of York (Thurstan) consecrated by Calixtus.

161.-Honorius II (15 Dec., 1124-14 Feb., 1130) Lambert Scannabecchi, of Fagnano, near Imola. He reestablished relations with England, which had been strained almost to breaking by the lawless behaviour of the first three Norman kings.

162.-Innocent II (14 Feb., 1130-24 Sept., 1143) Gregory Papareschi, was driven to France by the party of the anti-pope Pierleone (Anacletus II). St Bernard and St Norbert supported Innocent, and the end of the schism was celebrated at the 2nd General Council of the Lateran (1139). In 1138, Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury received from the Pope the title of Legatus Natus, which remained with his successors till the Reformation.

163.-Celestine II (26 Sept., 1143-8 March, 1144) Guido di Castello, a Tuscan, pupil of Abelard. A man of wide views and pacific mind.

164.-Lucius II (12 March, 1144-15 Feb., 1145) Gerard Caccianemici, of Bologna, encouraged the religious orders, especially the Premonstratensians: killed while besieging the Capitol.

165.-Blessed Eugenius III (1145-8 July, 1153) Bernard Paganelli of Pisa, a disciple of St Bernard, whom he charged to preach the second Crusade. Theobald of Canterbury attended the Council of Rheims (1148) contrary to the orders of King Stephen, for which be was banished. The Pope, in consequence, laid England for a short time under an interdict. Owing to the disturbances created in Rome by Arnold of Brescia, this Pope had to go twice into exile. He died at Tivoli.

166.-Anastasius IV (12 July. 1153-3 Dec., 1154).

167.-Adrian IV (4 Dec, 1154-1 Sept., 1159) Nicholas Breakspeare, the only English Pope. He was educated at the Benedictine Abbey of St Albans, studied in France, and entered a house of the Congregation of Canons of St Rufus near Arles, of which he was elected abbot. Eugenius III called him to Rome, created him Cardinal Bishop of Albano, and sent him as Legate to the Kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. His mission was the beginning of a new age in Scandinavian Catholicism, and on the death of Anastasius IV he was elected Pope. Arnold of Brescia continued to disturb the peace of the city till Adrian laid it under interdict and thus brought the people to give up their connection with Arnold. In this reign began the second phase of the long struggle between the empire and. the Papacy. Frederick Barbarossa continually encroached on the rights of the Holy See and endeavoured to subject the Church to the State He had gone so far as to imprison two cardinals, and only escaped excommunication by the death of the Pope.

168.-Alexander III (7 Sept., 1159-30 Aug., 1181) Rolando Bandineli of Siena. He was great, both in his learning and his action. He was one of the founders of the Canon Law. He continued the fight against Barbarossa and the anti-popes named by him, and had more than once to pass sentence of excommunication on him. This, together with the crushing defeat of Legnano, brought Frederick to make a full submission to the Holy Father at Venice (1177). Henry II of England also caused him continual sorrow by his violence and tyranny against the Church, culminating in the martyrdom of St Thomas Becket, whom Alexander had supported throughout, and whom he canonised little more than two years after his death. At the 3rd General Council of the Lateran (1179) he condemned the Albigenses and Waldenses, and reformed the method of Papal elections, making twothirds of the cardinals' votes the majority needed for a valid election.

169.-Lucius III (1 Sept., 1181- 25 Nov., 1185) called the Council of Verona (1184), where the third Crusade was decided on, and also the measures to be taken against heretics (Inquisition).

was decided on, and also the measures to be taken against heretics (Inquisition).

-Urban III (25 Nov., 1185-20 Oct., 1187).

171.-Gregory VIII (21 Oct.,- 17 Dec., 1187).

172.-Clement III (19 Dec., 1187-20 March, 1191).

173.-Celestine III (30 March, 1191-8 Jan., 1198).

174.-Innocent III (8 Jan., 1198-16 July, 1216) Lothaire conti di Segni, nephew of Clement III. One of the great popes of history. He was born at Anagni, and became Pope at 37. In spite of his youth, his eminent qualities gave him much influence. In the contested Imperial election he claimed the right to arbitrate and his decision was received by both parties. He exercised this power of arbitration also in the affairs of Aragon, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, and by his authority obliged Philip Augustus to take back his wife Ingelburga, whom he had unlawfully put away. His authority was respected everywhere. In England, John was outdoing his predecessors in his contempt for the liberties of the Church. In 1207 he ordered the monks of Canterbury to elect as primate the courtier Bishop of Norwich, instead of their sub-prior, whom they had chosen. The Pope set both aside and nominated Cardinal Stephen Langton, an eminent Englishman, whom John, however, refused to allow into the kingdom. For five years England lay under an interdict, and in 1213 the king was excommunicated, which in those days exempted subjects from their allegiance. He therefore submitted. Langton at length took possession of his see, and became the champion of both civil and ecclesiastical liberty in the country. Innocent III held the 4th General Council of the Lateran (1215).

175.-Honorius III (18 July, 1216.48 March, 1227) Cencio Savelli. He gave his approval to the Franciscan, Dominican, and Carmelite Orders.

176.-Gregory IX (19 March, 1227-22 Aug., 1241). Ugolino di Segni, nephew of Innocent III, governed with great energy. He excommunicated Frederic II, who submitted in 1236, but was again under the censure of the Church in 1239. Gregory died before the end of the conflict. He canonised St Francis and St Dominic, and protected their Orders still in their infancy.

177.-Celestine IV (25 Oct.,-10 Nov., 1241).

178.-Innocent IV (25 June, 12437 Dec., 1254) Sinibaldo Fieschi, Count of Baragna, born at Genoa. He wished to make peace with the Empire, but the conduct of Frederic made it impossible. Innocent left Rome, and held a General Council at Lyons, in which he excommunicated Frederic (1245). The struggle now became fiercer and continued after the death of Frederic (1250), but the victory was to the Holy See. Innocent. IV ranks amongst the greater popes of history. In his embarrassment during the long struggle with Frederic, and with the necessity of keeping up the Papal court at Lyons, he had to make frequent demands on the purses of his flock, and sought to provide for over-many .Italian priests in other countries. Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, whilst fully acknowledging the Pope's right to nominate to all benefices, represented to the Holy Father the hardship to the English of having so many foreigners, ignorant of the language, set over them for the cure of souls, and the Pope accordingly regulated the matter by a Bull (1253), greatly reducing the number of those who might be sent to England. As Henry Ill-though pious in some ways-did not scruple to.keep benefices empty, that he might enjoy their revenues, and to nominate worthless courtier bishops, the Pope himself consecrated both the Archbishop of Canterbury (Boniface of Savoy, the Queen's uncle) and St Richard of Chichester. After Alexander III, this Pope is the greatest of the ' Canonist' Popes.

179.-Alexander IV (12 Dec., 1254-25 May, 1261) Rainaldo di Segni, nephew of Gregory IX. He died of sorrow at the civil discord in the Church, and especially in Rome.

180.-Urban IV (29 Aug., 1261-2 Oct., 1264) Jacques Pantaleon, born at Troyes, in France. He was unable to enter Rome, and lived first at Viterbo, and then at Orvieto. He instituted the Feast of Corpus Christi (1264).

181.-Clement IV (5 Feb., 1265-29 Nov., 1268) Gui Foulquois le Gros of St Gilles-sur-Rhene, Counsellor of St Louis, and Archbishop of Narbonne. He contended against nepotism.

182.-Blessed Gregory X (1 Sept., 1271-10 Jan., 1276) Theobaldo Visconti of Piacenza. He governed wisely- confirmed the Imperial crown to Rudolf of Hapsburg, and called the 2nd General Council of Lyons (1274) at which the reunion of the Greeks with the Church effected. Unfortunately, it proved of short duration.

183.-Blessed Innocent V (2 Jan.-22 June, 1276) Peter of Tarantaise, born at Champigny, in Savoy. A Pope distinguished for theological learning, deep piety, and great virtue.

184.-Adrian V (11 July-18 Aug., 1276).

185.-John XXI (8 Sept., 1276-20 May, 1277) Peter Juliani, a Portuguese (Petrus Hispanus). A celebrated theologian and great student of the natural sciences and of (Arabian) medicine. He was the author of the Summulae Logicales, which. served for three centuries as a text book of logic.

186.-Nicholas III (25 Nov., 1277-22 Aug., 1280) Giovanni Gaetano Orsini. He made great efforts to reconcile the rival parties into which the Franciscan Order was at this time divided. He sent ambassadors to Mongolia.

187.-Martin IV (22 Feb., 1281-28 March, 1285) Simon of Brie, in the diocese of Sens. He excommunicated Michael Paleologus, which led to the renewal of the Greek schism.

188.-Honorius IV (2 April, 1285-3 April, 1287) Giacomo Savelli, a Roman, very energetic in spite of his great age. Established chairs for Oriental languages at the University of Paris.

189.-Nicholas IV (22 Feb., 1288-4 April, 1292) Girolamo Moschi of Ascoli, a Franciscan. He sent missionaries to the Mongols.

190.-St Celestine V (5 July,-13 Dec., 1294) Pietro de Murrone, a hermit of saintly life, elected after a vacancy of 20 months in the Apostolic See He was unfitted to rule, and resigned after a few months to become a simple monk again. He died in a sort of semi-captivity, 19 May, 1296.

191.-Boniface VIII (24 Dec., 1294-11 Oct., 1303) Benedetto Gaëtani, born at Anagni. He was full of the noblest intentions but encountered the hostility of princes, especially of Philip the Fair of France, with whom he had a severe conflict and by whom he was treated with great indignity. He forbade the enforced extra taxation of ecclesiastical property for secular purposes, except for national defence. He was arrested and maltreated by partisans of Philip, and died of grief. Under his reign the first jubilee took place (1300).

192.-Blessed Benedict Xl (22 Oct., 1303-7 July, 1304) Nicholao Boccasini of Treviso, formerly general of the Dominicans. He tried to improve the relations of France with the Holy See.

193.-Clement V (5 June, 1305-14 April, 1314) Bertrand de Got, Archbishop of Bordeaux, elected at Perugia and crowned at Lyons. Detained in France by urgent affairs consequent on the relations of Boniface VIII and. Philip the Fair, he established the Papal residence at Avignon, 1309, where it remained for 70 years. In order to avert a 'trial' of Boniface VIII, he yielded as a matter of expediency to Philip the Fair, and suppressed the Templars at the General Council of Vienne

194.-John XX1I (7 Aug., 1316-4 Dec., 1334) Jacques d'Euse of Cahors. Elected at Lyons after the Holy See had been vacant two years, he lived at Avignon, of which he had been bishop. He was a remarkable administrator. He vigorously opposed Louis of Bavaria and the Fraticelli, who set up an anti-pope (Pierre of Corbiere). He maintained the rights of the Holy See against State interference; and condemned Marsilius of Padua, who had written a revolutionary work against the Papacy.

195.-Benedict XII (20 Dec., 1334-25 April, 1342) Jacques Fournier of Saverdun in Languedoc. A pious and austere Pope, he reformed the Roman Curia and the Religious Orders. Built the Papal palace at Avignon.

196.-Clement VI (7 May, 1342-6 Dec., 1352) Pierre Roger. Open-handed, but somewhat too fond of magnificence, he bought the county and town of Avignon and dangerously developed the Papal system of taxing the whole Church. He fixed the jubilee for every 50th year. In England, Edward III, by the statutes of Provisors and Praemunire, strove to limit the Popes power in the matter of ecclesiastical appointments.

197.-Innocent VI (18 Dec., 1352-12 Sept., 1362) Etienne Aubert of Mont (Diocese of Limoges). A pious Pope who used ecclesiastical censures only when absolutely necessary, and was prudent and moderate in his relations with princes. He tried to reform the Roman Curia, protested against the Golden Bull (which abolished the Papal rights in the election of emperors) and by the help of Cardinal Albornoz regained the Papal States which had almost entirely fallen under the power of petty despots.

198.-Blessed Urban V (elected 28 Sept., consecrated 6 Nov., .1362-19 Dec.,1370) Guillaume Grimoard of Grisac. A very pious and literary Pope. He strove to reform the clergy. In 1367 he returned to Rome, but was unable to stay there, and died at Avignon.

199.-Gregory XI (30 Dec., 1370-27 March, 1378) Pierre Roger of Beaufort, nephew of Clement VI; the last French Pope. He yielded to the entreaties of St Catherine of Siena and returned to Rome (1377).

200.-Urban VI (8 April, 1378-15 Oct., 1389) Bartolommeo Prignano of Naples, Archbishop of Bari-the last to be elected Pope without having been a cardinal. The election was troubled by popular clamour, but was certainly valid though later the cardinals, finding his zeal for the reform of abuses lacking in prudence and consideration, affected to look on it as invalid, and elected a second pope, Clement VII, who lived at Avignon. This caused the schism of the West,' which lasted 40 years (1378-1417). Pope Urban VI fixed the jubilee at every 30 years. During his reign, Wyclif, almost the sole English Medieval heretic, was condemned. He was summoned to appear before the Sovereign Pontiff, but died before he could do so.

201.-Boniface IX (2 Nov., 1389�'1 Oct., 1404) Pietro Tomacelli of Naples. A Pope who tried to put an end to the schism (the anti-pope at Avignon was now Benedict XIII, Pedro di Luna, a Spaniard), but unfortunately gave great scandal by an excessive attention to his revenues.

202.-Innocent VII (17 Oct., 1404-6 Nov., 1406) Cosirno dei Migliorati. He intended to call a Council to end the schism, but died before he could accomplish it.

203.-Gregory XII (30 Nov., 1406-4 June, 1415, died 18 Sept., 1417) Angelo Corranio of Venice. He was abandoned by his cardinals, who united with those of Avignon to elect a third Pope at the Council of Pisa (1409). Next, in 1414, the Council of Constance, called by the Pisan Pope, John XXIII, summoned Gregory and Benedict XIII to appear before it, Gregory decided to abdicate for the peace of the Church. The Council deposed John XXIII and Benedict XIII.

204.-Martin V (11 Nov., 1417-20 Feb., 1431) Odo Colonna, born at Genezzano, elected at Constance. He had to contend against the theory that a General Council is superior to the Pope, and to fight against the destructive heresy of Hus.

205.-Eugene IV (3 March, 1431-23 Feb., 1447) Gabriele Condulmaro. A pious Pope who did much good. He held the Council of Florence, which for the second time effected reunion with the Greeks (1439). (See No. 182.)

206.-Nicholas V (6 March, 1447-24 March, 1455) Tommaso Parentucelli of Sarzana (Tuscany), Archbishop of Bologna, succeeded in putting an end to the schism of Basle (1449), celebrated a splendid jubilee (1450), crowned Frederic III in Rome (1452) -the last imperial coronation in Rome. He was a great patron of learning and art, and founded the Vatican library.

207.-Calixtus III (8 April, 1455-6 Aug., 1458) Alonso Borgia, born 1378 near Valencia (Spain). A good and energetic Pope, in spite of his age. His reign was much troubled by the incursions of the Turks, who had taken Constantinople (1453), but though unable to realise the project he had formed of a Crusade against them, he succeeded in arresting their progress before Belgrade (1456).

208.-Pius II (19 Aug., 1458- 15 Aug., 1464) Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, born near Siena 1405. A patron of the Renaissance. He had been secretary and an adherent of the anti-pope Felix V, but became a loyal servant of the Holy See, and exercised a great influence on

his times. He died at Ancona, whilst endeavouring to raise a Crusade against the Turks.

209.-Paul 11(30 Aug., 1464- 26 July, 1471) Pietro Barbo, born 1418 at Venice, fixed the jubilee for every 25th year. Fearing that the Renaissance, especially the excessive imitation of pagan ways of life, would go too far, he set himself to oppose the tendency, and abolished the Court of the Abbreviatori established by his predecessor, Pius II, and the Academy of Pomponius Laetus, thus drawing on himself the hatred of its members.

210.-Sixtus IV (9 Aug., 1471- 12 Aug., 1484) Cardinal Francesco della Rovere of Savona, born 1414. He beautified the city of Rome, but employed undesirable means of raising funds (plurality of benefices, etc.). In this reign, through the Pope's nomination of incompetent and evil-living men to high office, and his promotion of unworthy relatives, the seeds were sown of all the scandals that, for sixty years, made Rome the world's disgrace.

211.-Innocent VIII (29 Aug., 1484-25 July, 1492) Giovanni Battista Cibo, born at Genoa. A weak Pope, who tolerated scandals in the Roman court, but deserves credit for ending the long feud between the houses of Colonna and Orsini.

212.-Alexander VI (10 Aug., 1492-18 Aug., 1503) Rodriguez Lanzol, adopted by his uncle, Alonzo Borgia, whose family name he took, and by whom he was made cardinal. He was intelligent, prudent, and politic, but unscrupulous and a man of bad life, utterly unworthy of his high office. He practised the most deplorable nepotism. As Pope he patronised the foreign missions, arts, and letters.

213.-Pius III (22 Sept.-18 Oct., 1503) a man of saintly life.

214.-Julius 11(31 Oct., 1503- 21 Feb., 1513) Cardinal Giuliano della Revere, nephew of Sixtus IV, very influential under Innocent VIII, and strongly opposed to Alexander VI. He published very stringent laws against simoniacal elections. An energetic Pope, and a man of worthy life, but very ambitious, and too fond of war (League of Cambrai and Holy League). Very patriotic, he dreamed of uniting all Italy-delivered from the 'Barbarians'-under the shield of the Papacy. A great patron of the arts, laid the first stone of St Peter's. Convened the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517).

215.-Leo X (11 March, 1513- 1 Dec., 1521) Giovanni de Medici, born at Florence, 1475, made cardinal at 14. A great patron of arts and letters (Raphael, Michaelangelo, Bembo, etc.). He condemned Luther by the Bull ' Exsurge Domine,' 1520, and gave to Henry VIII the title ' Defender of the Faith' fur his book against Luther in defence of the Seven Sacraments. An easy-going, pleasure-loving man.

216.-Adrian VI (9 Jan., 1522 -14 Sept., 1523) Adrian Dedel, born at Utrecht, the last Pope who was not an Italian. A former master of Charles V. he was a zealous and virtuous Pope, who tried to reform the Roman Curia and to stem the tide of Protestantism in Europe.

217.-Clement VII (18 Nov., 1523-25 Sept., 1534) Giulio de Medici, born 1478, Archbishop of Florence, was imprisoned in the Castle of St Angelo during the sack of Rome. He saw Germany a prey to religious dissension, the Turks at the walls of Vienna, 1529, and England torn from the Holy See as a result of Henry VIII's fruitless endeavours to obtain from the Pope a decree of nullity regarding his marriage with Catherine of Aragon.

218.-Paul III (13 Oct., 1534- 10 Nov., 1549) Alessandro Farnese, born at Canino 1468. A real statesman, he worked courageously at the reformation of abuses in the Church, published the long-delayed Bull of excommunication against Henry VIII, called the Council of Trent (1545-63) and gave his approbation to the Society of Jesus.

219.-Julius III (8 Feb., 1550- 23 March, 1555) Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, born in Rome 1487. He had as Papal legate presided over thee Council of Trent, which, as Pope, he continued. He approved the foundation of the German College in Rome, sent Cardinal Pole (Pole had very nearly been elected Pope at the last conclave.) to reconcile England to the Church, and empowered him to condone the confiscation of Church property due to the Reformation. On 30 Nov., 1554, on the formal petition of both Houses of Parliament, the legate absolved the country from heresy and schism.

220.-Marcellus II (9 April- 1 May, 1555) Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi, born in 1501 at Montepulciano. 'One of the noblest figures in Papal history.' He had been in many important offices, including that of president of the Council of Trent as Cardinal Cervini, and was zealous for the work of reform. All rejoiced at his election, but be died after a reign of three weeks.

221.-Paul IV (23 May, 1555-18 Aug., 1559) Giovanni Pietro Caraffa. A Neapolitan, born at Capriglio 1470. In concert with St Cajetan he founded the Theatines. A Pope who was full of zeal for the reform of abuses in the Church, but was rather too absolute in character.

222.-Pius IV (25 Dec., 1559-9 Dec., 1565) Gianangelo de' Medici, born at Milan 1499, called his nephew, St Charles Borromeo, to office in the Church, reformed abuses in the Sacred College, and continued the Council of Trent.

223.-St Pius V (8 Jan., 1566-1 May, 1572) Michael Ghislieri, born near Alexandria (Italy) 1504. The last pope who was canonised. (Pope Pius X was canonised after this pamphlet was written) Published the Roman Catechism, the Breviary, the Missal; established the Congregation of the Index, and formed a victorious league against the Turks (Lepanto 1571). He signed the Bull excommunicating and deposing Elizabeth (1569), who had again drawn England into heresy and deprived bishops of their sees.

224.-Gregory XIII (13 May, 1572-10 April, 1585) Ugo Buoncompagni, born at Bologna 1502. He condemned the errors of Baius (1579), reformed the Julian Calendar (1582), founded 23 seminaries, and developed the missions: A great patron of the new English colleges at Douay and Rome.

225.-Sixtus V (24 April, 1585 -27 Aug., 1590) Felix Perretti, born 1521, near Montalto, former general of the Franciscans. An energetic Pope, hard on himself and others. He fixed the number of the cardinals at 70, reorganiscd the Roman Curia and the 15 congregations, becoming, the founder of the modern Papal administrative system.

226.-Urban VII (15-27 Sept., 1590).

227.-Gregory XIV (5 Dec., 1590-15 Oct., 1591) Nicolao Sfondrati, born near Milan 1535. He encouraged the League in France and excommunicated Henry of Navarre.

228.-Innocent IX (29 Oct.- 30 Dec., 1591).

229.-Clement VIII (30 Jan., 1592-5 March, 1605) Ipollito Aldobrandini, born at Fano 1536. He was pious and energetic, edited the Vulgate, and re-edited the Index (1596). He was consoled by the conversion of Henry IV of France. In 1598 he appointed George Blackwell as 'Archpriest' in England, but this priest took the oath of Allegiance, which in its actual form was not lawful, and others followed his example: he was therefore superseded by another Archpriest, appointed by the Holy See.

230.-Leo XI (1-27 April, 1605).

231.-Paul V (16 May, 1605-28 Jan., 1621) Camillo Borghese, born in Rome 1552. He did much to beautify Rome, and to aid missionary work. He was generous and zealous, but far too favourable to his relations.

Rome, and to aid missionary work. He was generous and zealous, but far too favourable to his relations.

-Gregory XV (9 Feb., 1621-8 July, 1623) Alessandro Ludovici: born at Bologna 1554. An active and magnanimous Pope. He regulated the Conclave (1621), founded Propaganda (1622), brought back Moravia and Bohemia to the Church, protected the Jesuits and canonised St Ignatius and St Francis Xavier. In 1623 he appointed Dr. William Bishop, Vicar Apostolic over England and Scotland, and this form of government continued till 1850.

233.-Urban VIII (16 Aug., 1623-29 July, 1644) Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence 1568. He condemned the 'Augustinus' of Jansenius (1541), and gave to cardinals and also to elector bishops the title of Eminence. In 1634 the Pope sent Gregorio Panzani, of the Roman Oratory, to report on the condition of Catholics under Charles I. George Conn was then sent as Papal envoy to Queen Henrietta Maria.

234.-Innocent X (15 Sept., 1644-7 Jan., 1655) Giovanni Battista Pamfili, born in Rome 1574. He protested against the articles of the Peace of Westphalia, which were hostile to the Catholic Religion (Bull Zelus Domus Dei, 1648), and condemned five propositions of Jansenius.

235.-Alexander VII (7 April, 1655-22 May, 1667) Fabio Chigi, born at Siena 1599.

236.-Clement IX (20 June, 1667-9 Dec., 1669) Giulio Rospigliosi, born at Pistoja 1600. He had been a very influential Secretary of State under Alexander VII. He reconciled France and Spain, took great interest in the foreign missions, and forbade missionaries to engage in commerce.

237.-Clement X (29 April, 1670-22 July, 1676) Emilio Altieri. Born at Rome 1590. To him we owe the canonisation of Saints Peter of Alcantara, Rose of Lima, Madeleine of Pazzi, Francis Borgia, Cajetan of Thiene, Louis Bertrand. and Philip Benizi.

238.-lnnocent XI, Ven. (21 Sept., 1676-11 Aug., 1689) Benedetto Odescalchi, born at Como 1611, was a pious and active Pope who maintained the authority of the Holy See on all occasions, condemned quietism, reorganised the administration of the Papal States, and fought against nepotism. He effectively restored the episcopal rule in England, appointing four vicarsapostolic in 1688. He sent a nuncio to the court of the last Catholic king, James II. He protested against the Four Articles of Gallican liberties.

239.-Alexander VIII (6 Oct., 1689-1 Feb., 1691) Pietro Ottoboni, born at Venice 1610. He obtained from I,ouis XIV the restoration of Avignon and Venaissin, but was not deterred from publishing a brief in which he condemned the Four Articles of Gallican Liberties. He is accused of nepotism.

240.-Innocent XII (12 July, 1691-27 Sept., 1700) Antonio Pignatelli, born near Naples 1615, obtained from Louis XIV the retractation of the Four Gallican Articles.

241.-Clement XI (23 Nov., 1700-19 March, 1721) Gianfrancesco Albani, born at Urbino 1649. A learned and zealous Pope, he condemned Jansenism in 1705, and again in 1715 by the Bull ' Unigenitus.'

242.-Innocent XIII (8 May, 1721-7 March, 1724) Michelangelo de Conti, born in Rome 1655.

243.-Benedict XIII (27 May, 1724-2 1 Feb., 1730) Pietro Francesco Orsini-Gravina, born at Gravina 1649, a Dominican. He restored good relations between the Holy See and the Dukes of Sardinia and Savoy, but was less fortunate with Portugal. He allowed too much influence to the infamous Cardinal Coscia.

244.-Clement XII (12 July, 1730-8 Feb., 1740) Lorenzo Corsini, born at Florence 1652, zealously aided the foreign missions, sent the Capuchins to Tibet, condemned the Jansenist Bishop of Utrecht in 1735, and Freemasonry in 1738.

245.-Benedict XIV (17 Aug., 1740-3 May, 1758) Prospero Lambertini, born at Bologna 1675. A celebrated canonist, one of the most learned of the popes.

246.-Clement XIII (6 July, 1758-2 Feb., 1769) Carlo della Torre Rezzonico, born at Venice 1693, he courageously defended the Jesuits against Pombal and the Bourbons, and confirmed the Order (1765).

247.-Clement XIV (28 May, 1769-22 Sept., 1774) Giovanni Vicenzo Antonio Ganganelli, born 1705 near Rimini. To his great sorrow he was compelled to suppress the Society of Jesus. It was restored in 1815.

248.-Pius VI (15 Feb., 1775- 29 Aug., 1799) Giovanni Angelico Braschi, born at Cesena 1717, had to fight against State interference, especially in Austria and France. The armies of the republic entered Rome, and by main force obliged the Holy Father to leave it (1798). He died in captivity at Valence.

249.-Plus VII (14 March, 1800-20 Aug., 1823) Luigi Barnabo Chiaramonti, born at Cesena 1742, Bishop of Imola, elected at Venice. He signed a concordat with France, protesting, however, against the Organic Articles which had been added to it without having been submitted to him at all. The Pope went to Paris to crown Napoleon, but energetically opposed his growing pretensions, was arrested (1809) in Rome, and kept a prisoner at Savona and Fontainebleau, re-entered Rome (1814), restored the Society of Jesus (1815), and otherwise laboured to heal the wounds of the Church.

250.-Leo XlI (28 Sept., 1823- 10 Feb., 1829) Annibale della Genga, born at Genga near Spoleto 1760; contended energetically against revolutionary ideas, reorganised the hierarchy in South America, restored many of the schismatical churches in Asia to the unity of the Faith, gave special attention to the national colleges in Rome, signed concordats with Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, and condemned secret societies.

251.-Pius VIII (31 March, 1829-1 Dec., 1830) Francesco Xaverio Castiglione, born 1761 at Cingoli, in the March of Ancona; regulated the question of mixed marriages in Prussia by a brief and fought against Freemasonry. He heard with joy of the passing of the Roman Catholic Emancipation Act, during the ministry of Sir Robert Peel (1829).

252.-Gregory XVI (2 Feb., 1831-1 June, 1846) Bartolommeo Capellari, born at Belluno 1765, continually occupied with the maintenance of order in the misgoverned Papal States, where secret societies were ceaselessly at work; defended the rights of the Church in Prussia and Russian Poland; censured Lamennais, and encouraged foreign missions.

253.-Pius IX (16 June, 1846-7 Feb., 1878) Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferreti, born at Sinigaglia 1792, was a Pope of great heart, if not of great mind, who sought to gain his opponents by making such concessions as he legitimately could. He was driven from Rome by the revolution, after the assassination of his minister, de Rossi (15 Nov., 1848). On his return he reorganised the Papal States, which were, however, taken from him one by one by the intrigues of Sardinia, until Rome itself fell before the invading army, 20 Sept., 1870. Pius lX defined the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, 8 Dec., 1854, called the Vatican Council (1869), in which he defined the doctrine of Papal Infallibility, re-established the hierarchy in England (1850), and in Holland (1853). His last years were saddened by the Kultur-kampf in Germany. and the spoliation of the Church throughout the new kingdom of Italy.

254.-Leo XIII (20 Feb., 1878 -20 July, 1903) Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, born at Carpineto 1810, one of the greatest statesmen the Church has had, he re-established the prestige of the Holy See in all countries, saw the end of the Kultur-kampf in Germany, and staved off the rupture of relations between the Holy See and France. In masterly encyclicals he dealt with all the problems of the time, especially with the social question (Encyclical 'Rerum novarum,' 1891).

255.-St Pius X (4 Aug., 1903- 20 Aug., 1914) Giuseppe Melchiore Sarto, born at Riese, 2 July, 1835, Patriarch of Venice, a Pope of saintly life, whose aim was to restore all things in Christ.' He greatly promoted Catholic devotion to the Holy Eucharist-frequent Communion (1905), early Communion of children (1910); reformed the liturgy and the music of the Church. He had the sorrow of seeing the Concordat with France broken (1905), and condemned the Law of Separation (1906). In 1907 he condemned modernism. He died of grief at the outbreak of the European war (1914). (Canonised by Pope Pius XII).

256.-Benedict XV (3 Sept., 1914-22 Jan., 1922) Giacomo della Chiesa, born at Genoa 1854. His Pontificate was overshadowed by the horrors of the Great War (1914-18) and the difficulties of the first years of reconstruction. He worthily fulfilled his office as Father of all nations, condemning in his official writings and speeches the violation of right and justice, labouring to establish peace, and to mitigate the suffering caused by the war. In 1917 he promulgated a new code of canon law.

257�'Pius XI (6 Feb., 1922- 10 Feb., 1939) Achille Ratti, born at Desio, in the Archdiocese of Milan, 31 May, 1857-The glorious Pope of the missions.' By the Lateran Treaty, 7 June, 1929, he achieved the creation of the Vatican City as a Sovereign State, thus ending the captivity of the Popes, and renewing for the Holy See the universal recognition of its temporal sovereignty and liberty.

258.-Pius XII(2 March, 1939,) Eugenio Pacelli, born at Rome 2 March, 1876. The present Pope's great work has been his constancy in upholding, throughout the War, the inalienable rights of the human personality and of the right of the State, however small this is, to govern itself independently. This, the Pope's perfect neutrality in politics, and his universal charity towards all who have suffered, will give him a high place in history.

259.-John XXIII

260.-Paul VI

261.-John Paul I

262.-John Paul II


This list differs very slightly from the list given in the Annuario Pontificio of 1904 and 1905, which was drawn up by Father

(later Cardinal) Ehrle.

It differs from the pictorial series in St Paul-without-the-Walls as follows


Leo VIII (No. 132) Sylvester III (No. 146)

Both of whom, however, we give as doubtful.

Not Included.*

Anacletus (identified with Cletus, No. 3).

Felix II (see Liberius, No. 36).

Stephen II (see Stephen II, No. 92).

Donus II (see Benedict VI. No 134).

Alexander V (The Pope elected at Pisa)

*All these Popes are counted as certainly of invalid election, some as having never existed.


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