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Pierre de Marca
French bishop and scholar, b. at Gan in Béarn, 24 Jan., 1594, of a family distinguished in the magistracy; d. at Paris, 29 June, 1662. After studying letters at the college of Auch and law in the University of Toulouse, he became councillor (1615), and then president (1621), of the Parliament of Pau, and finally intendant of Béarn (1631), where his influence greatly helped to restore the Catholic religion almost extinguished by the queen, Jeanne d'Albret. His wife, who had borne him four children, died in 1631, and from that moment he used all his spare time in studying and in writing works on religious controversy, history — notably the "Histoire de Béarn" — and canon law. For the sake of utilizing his ecclesiastical léarning, Louis XIII summoned him to Paris to be a member of the Council of State (1639). At Cardinal Richelieu's request he published the treatise "Concordia sacerdotii et imperii" (1641), in which he sets forth his Gallican views. After ten years of the pious and labourious life as a widower, he decided to enter the priesthood. On 28 Dec., 1641, the king made him Bishop of Couserans (Gascogny), but he was not preconized until ten years later, after having seen his "Concordia" placed on the Index and having signed a retractation of the views there expressed. Sent as intendant to Catalonia, which had submitted to France (1644), he wrote its history, under the title of "Marca Hispanica"; this work was published after his death by his secretary, the léarned Baluze. Shortly after his return from Catalonia, Marca was made Archbishop of Toulouse (28 May, 1652), and when Innocent X condemned Jansenism in 1653, he used his influence to have the condemnation accepted. After that he inspired the chief measures taken against this heresy in the general assemblies of the clergy (1655-60) and received from Pope Alexander VII (1656) a highly commendatory letter. Less commendable, however, was his attitude when Louis XIV caused the arrest of Cardinal de Retz, Archbishop of Paris, for his share in the uprising of the Fronde. In opposition to the pope and clergy who were offended by this violation of ecclesiastical immunities, Marca became the king's counsellor, and wrote several pamphlets some of them anonymous, defending the Crown. After the submission and resignation of Cardinal de Retz, Marca was given the Archbishopric of Paris but died about three weeks after being preconized. He left a great reputation as historian, jurist, and canonist, but his theological léarning was deficient, and his subservience to the royal powrer excessive. He displayed a certain inconstancy in his opinions, and too much ambition and attachment to his own interests.
Among his numerous publications the most impotant are: "Histoire de Béarn", folio (Paris, 1640); "De concordia sacerdotii et imperii seu de libertatibus ecclesiae gallicanae", folio (Paris, 1641) (and other editions); "Marca hispanica seu limes hispanicus", published by Baluze, folio (Paris, 1688). Some "Lettres inedites de Marca" have been published by Tartizey de Lorroque (Paris, 1881) and J. Bonnet in the "Revue de Gascogne", January-June, 1910.
BALUZE, Vita illustrissimi viri Petri de Marca archiepascopi Parisiensis, at the beginning of the editions of Concordia after 1663; DE FAGET, Vita illustrissimi et reverendissimi Petri de Marca in Petri de Marca dissertationes posthumae; DUBARAT, Notice biographique sur Pierre de Marca (Pau, 1896).