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Examiners, Apostolic, so called because appointed by the Apostolic See for service in Rome. In 1570 Pius V instituted the Apostolic examiners to conduct examinations of candidates for orders and of confessors. These examiners, who are chosen by the pope, take an oath in the presence of the cardinal vicar to discharge their duties faithfully. By virtue of a Constitution of Alexander VII, in 1662, the examination of those who would receive orders is held in the vicariate, or palace of the cardinal vicar, in the presence of at least three examiners. It is only after consultation with the pope that the cardinal vicar may dispense from this examination, except in case of tonsure, when he may allow candidates to be examined privately by one examiner. All, whether affiliated to the Diocese of Rome or not, must undergo this examination. Those who have been in Rome four months or more, and who intend to return to the Eternal City, must, under pain of suspension, be examined in the vicariate before receiving orders (not tonsure) elsewhere. An exception is made in regard to the canons of the basilica of St. Peter, who are examined and promoted to orders by their cardinal archpriest. They must, however, have testimonial letters from the cardinal vicar. Even prelates of the Roman Curia must present themselves at the vicariate, but out of respect for their dignity they occupy seats among the examiners and examine one another.
As regards confessors they are not approved in Rome till they have passed a satisfactory examination before the Apostolic examiners. Although the cardinal vicar may dispense in this matter, the exercise of this prerogative is exceedingly rare. Generally, after a first and second test faculties to hear confessions are granted only for a limited time, while a third successful examination meets with unlimited approbation.
ANDREW B. MEEHAN