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Encyclopedia, an abridgment of human knowledge in general or a considerable department thereof, treated from a uniform point of view or in a systematized summary. Although the word, used technically, dates only from the sixteenth century, encyclopedic treatment of human science reaches back to antiquity, growing out of the needs of general culture, necessities arising from the extent of the great empires of antiquity. The general culture which every free-born Greek and Roman had to acquire, comprised the practical and theoretical sciences, grammar, music, geometry, astronomy, and gymnastics, and was termed enkuklios paideia, orbis doctrine (cycle of the sciences), and, beginning with the Middle Ages, artes liberates (see Seven Liberal Arts).
According to their form, systematic encyclopedias are divided into two classes: (a) those which present all branches of knowledge, arranged uniformly and organically according to some fixed system of connection, and (b) the lexicographical encyclopedias, which treat of the same matter arranged according to an alphabetical system. Suidas, in the tenth century, compiled an encyclopedia of the latter type, which became common only in the seventeenth century after the appearance of encyclopedic dictionaries dealing with particular sciences. Aristotle was the first in ancient times to attempt a summary of human knowledge in encyclopedic form. Compared with Aristotle's work, which is built up on a philosophic basis, the compilations along this line by Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C.), Marcus Terentius Varro (116-27 B.C.), in his "Disciplinarum libri IX", Pliny (A.D. 23-79), in his "Historia naturalis", and Martianus Capella (fifth century), in his "Satiricon", or "De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii", used during the Middle Ages as a textbook for the liberal arts, were merely collections of materials. Besides general encyclopedias, the ancients also had special encyclopedias, e.g. a lost work of Plato's pupil, Speusippus, and later Varro's "Rerum divinarum et humanarum antiquitates", which has also perished. This group comprises also the medieval summoe and specula. The lack of a philosophic basis and the mechanical stringing together of facts without organic principle give to most of these works an unsatisfactory and tentative character.
The first attempt to compile an encyclopedia in the real sense of the word is evident in the "Etymologiae sive origines" of Isidore of Seville (c. 560-636), the materials of which were rearranged and more or less independently supplemented by Rabanus Maurus (776-856) in his "De Universo", by Honorius Augustodunensis in his "Imago Mundi", and by others. The most astonishing of these compilations, from the viewpoint of wealth of material and complexity of detail, is the work of Vincent of Beauvais (died c. 1264), which groups the entire knowledge of the Middle Ages under three heads: "Speculum naturale", "Speculum doctrinale", and "Speculum historiale"; later an anonymous writer published, as a supplement, the "Speculum morale". The following are also examples of encyclopedic works in the later Middle Ages: "Liber de naturae rerum" of Conrad of Megenberg (d. 1374); the "Imago Mundi"of Pierre d'Ailly (died c. 1420); the "Margarita philosophica" of Gregor Reisch, O. Cart. (Freiburg, 1503), and at a later date the encyclopedias of Ringelberg, "Lucubrationes vet potius absolutissima kuklopaideia (Basle, 1541), Paul Scalich, "Encyclopaedia seu Orbis Disciplinarum turn sacrarum turn profanarum" (Basle, 1559); Martini, "Idea methodicae et brevis encyclopaediae sive adumbratio universitatis" (Herborn, 1000); Alsted's "Scientiarum omnium encyclopaediae tomi VII" (Herborn, 1620; 2nd ed., 1630). All the above-mentioned works are simply collections of facts showing no mastery of the material by the writer, much less any critical research or an organic system of compilation.
The first to attempt a work founded on the philosophy and interrelation of sciences was Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, in his incomplete "Instauratio Magna", the second part of which was the "Novum organum" (London, 1620), and his "De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum" (1623). His immediate successors, however, who had not mastered their materials, did not rise above the old-fashioned compilation of dry facts suited only for general instruction or as works of reference for scholars, e.g. the "Pere librorum juvenilium" of Wagenseil (Altdorf, 1695), Chevigny's "La science de l'hornme de tour d'epée et de robe" (18 vols., Amsterdam, 1752), and Daniel Morhof's "Polyhistor" (Lübeck, 1688 and 1747). A clearer idea of the proper organic construction of an encyclopedic work is first apparent in J. M. Gesner's "Primae lineae isagoges in eruditionem universalem" (3rd ed., Göttingen, 1786), and J. G. Sulzer's "Kurzer Begriff aller Wissenschaften" (Leipzig, 1745; Eisenach, 1778). The way had been prepared, however, by two earlier works, which mark an important advance in the conception of what is proper to an encyclopedia. Both works, but especially the second, exerted a far-reaching influence on the whole intellectual life of the time. These were: Bayle's "Dictionnaire historique et critique" (Rotterdam, 1696), and "Encyclopedie ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers", compiled by Diderot and d'Alembert (28 vols., Paris, 1751-72, with 7 supplementary vols., 1776-80). While in these works the matter is arranged on an alphabetical system, a number of Sulzer's imitators essayed a systematic presentation of sciences on the old plan, e.g. Adelung, "Kurzer Begriff menschlicher Fertigkeiten and Kentnisse" (Leipzig, 1778); Reimarus, "Encyklopädie" (Hamburg, 1775); Büsch, "Encyk. der mathematischen Wissenschaften" (Hamburg, 1795); Reuss, "Encyclopädie" (Tübingen, 1783); Buhle, "Encyclopädie" (Lemgo, 1790). A successful attempt in this direction, based on Kantian principles, was made by J. J. Eschenburg in his "Lehrbuch der Wissenschaftskunde" (Berlin, 1792; 3rd ed., 1808). In competition with this, Krug's introduction of a new method in "Versuch einer systematischen Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften" (Leipzig, 1796-97; Züllichau, 1804-19) was unsuccessful. Not to mention Habel, Rüf, and Strass, the following imitators of Eschenburg gained no little reputation: Heffter, "Philosophische Darstellung eines Systems aller Wissenschaften" (Leipzig, 1806); Burdach, "Organismus der menschlichen Wissenschaften and Kunst" (Leipzig, 1809); Kraus, "Encyklopädische Ansichten" (Königsberg, 1809); and the followers of Kant, E. Schmidt, "Allgemeine Encyklopädie and Methodologie der Wissenschaften" (Jena, 1810), and K. A. Schaller, "Encyk. and Methodologie" (Magdeburg, 1812). The increase in knowledge and the demands for specialization which are noticeable from the beginning of the nineteenth century, destroyed even the possibility of presenting completely all the departments of human knowledge or even a single branch of any great extent. The last attempts made in this direction (and they deserve some attention) were Kirchner's "Akademische Propädeutik" (Leipzig, 1842) and "Hodegetik" (1852), also Schleiermacher's "Bibliographisches System der gesamten Wissenschaftskunde" (Brunswick, 1852).
The increasing specialization of sciences has resulted in the production of special encyclopedias, which in the course of time have gradually come to cover every department of science and art and every phase of human life. Thus there have appeared, for instance, Böckh, "Encyk. und Methodologie der philolog. Wissenschaften" (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1886); Rommel, "Semitische Völker and Sprachen" (Leipzig, 1883-); Schmitz's work on the modern languages; Körting's works on English and Romance philology (Heilbronn, 1884-); Gröber, "Grundriss der roman. Philol." (Strasburg, 1888-); Paul, "Grundriss der german. Philol." (Strasburg, 1889-93); Elze, "Grundriss der engl. Philol." (Halle, 1887); Geiger-Kuhn, "Grundriss der iranischen Philologie" (Strasburg, 1896-); Bühler-Kielhorn, "Grundriss der indo-arischen Philologie" (Strasburg, 1896-); Jagic, "Grundriss der slavischen Philologie" (1908). The province of jurisprudence has also been covered in a similar manner in the course of the nineteenth century, especially by Arndt, "Jurist. Encyk. u. Methodologie" (Stuttgart, 1843; 10th ed., 1901); Bluhme, "Encyk. der in Deutschland geltenden Rechte" (Bonn, 1847-58); Merkel, "Juristische Encyk." (Berlin, 1885; 3rd ed., 1904). Theology was also summarized by the Catholics: Staudenmaier, "Encyk. der theolog. Wissenschaften" (2nd ed., Mainz, 1840); Wirthmüller, "Encyk. der kath. Theologie" (1874); Klee, "Encyk. der Theologie" (1832); Kihn, "Encyk. and Methodologie der Theologie" (1892); Krieg, "Encyk. der theolog. Wissenschaften" (1899); by Protestants: Zöckler, "Handbuch der theolog. Wissenschaften" (Munich, 1882-85); Hagenbach, "Encyk. and Methodologie der theolog. Wissenschaften" (12th ed., Leipzig, 1889); Heinrici, "Theolog. encyk." (1893); Kehler, "Wissenschaft der christl. Lehre" (1893); Rabiger, "Theologik" (1880); Achelis-Baumgarten, "Grundriss der theol. Wissenschaften" (1892). Pedagogy is treated in the "Encykl. der Pädagogie" of Stoy (1861; 2nd ed., 1878); political science by Baumstark, "Kameralistische Encyk." (1835); and von Mohl, "Encyk. der Staatswissenschaft" (1859; 2nd ed., 1872); the progress of civilization by Dünkelberg, "Encyk. and Methodologie der Kulturtechnik" (1883); forestry by Dombrowski, "Allg. Encykl. der ges. Forst- and Jagdwissenschaften" (1886-94); physics by Lardner, "Cabinet Cyclopaedia" (132 vols., London, 1829-46; 2d ed., 1854); "Allgemeine Encykl. der Physik", ed. Lamont, Helmholtz, and others; and chemistry by Frémy, "Encykl. chim." (Paris, 1886). The "Encyclopaedia Metropolitana" of S. Taylor Coleridge is of a more general scope, as also the vast undertaking of Iwan Müller, which embraces every branch of classical learning, treated by specialists, "Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft" (Munich, 1885; vols. since republished separately). Among the various attempts to treat history in this manner may be mentioned Oncken's "Allgemeine Gesch. in Einzeldarstellungen" (45 vols., Berlin, 1879-93). Nearly every branch may boast of some encyclopedic work to facilitate a rapid general survey of the subject, its history, aim, and object, and, above all, to present the results of special investigation in the several departments of the science. An important contribution along these lines, now in the course of publication, which will give the general reader an outlook upon the various branches of knowledge, is "Die Kultur der Gegenwart", ed. Hinneberg (Leipzig, 1906-).
The first to arrange encyclopedic matter according to an alphabetical system was Suidas, during whose time (tenth and eleventh centuries) the necessity of general information on Byzantine culture made itself felt, especially during the reign of Constantine VII, Porphyrogenitus (913-59). The lexicon of Suidas was first imitated by Furetière (Rotterdam, 1690); Thomas Corneille (Paris, 1694); Ephraim Chambers in his "Cyclopaedia" (London, 1728); Jablonski, "Lexikon der Künste and Wissenschaften" (Leipzig, 1721); Moréri, "Grand dict. historique" (Lyons, 1674); and Hübner, "Reales-Staats-Zeitungs- and Konversations-Lexikon" (1704; 31st ed., Leipzig, 1824-28). As to contents the encyclopedias of this period may likewise be divided into general encyclopedias (Konversationslexikon), and technical encyclopedias or dictionaries (Realwörterbuch or Realencyklopädie). The most important work for the popularization of the results of scientific research was Bayle's "Dict. historique et critique" (Rotterdam, 1695-97). The ambitious "Biblioteca universale" of Coronelli (7 vols., Venice, 1701) remained incomplete; the immense "Grosses, vollständiges Universal-Lexikon aller Wissenschaften und Künste", edited by J. P. von Ludewig, Frankenstein, Longolius, and others and published by Zedler (64 vols. and 4 suppl. vols., Leipzig, 1731-54), was brought to completion. About the same time there appeared in France the great encyclopedia of Diderot and d'Alembert who were assisted in their work by numerous champions of rationalism, e.g. Voltaire, d'Holbach, Rousseau, and Grimm: "Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers" (28 vols., Paris, 1751-72, with 5 supplementary volumes, Amsterdam, 1776-77, and 2 vols. of analytical index, Paris, 1780). This resembles the German work in breadth of scope, but had much greater influence on European thought, popularizing as it did the empiricism, sensism, and materialism of Locke. The first edition of 30,000 copies was followed by many later editions.
The encyclopedia of Diderot paved the way for the alphabetic encyclopedia. It was not only frequently reprinted but was rearranged as a system of separate dictionaries by Panckoucke and Agasse in the "Encyclopédie méthodique ou par ordre des matières" (166 vols. of text and 51 vols. of illustrations; Paris, 1782-1832). In Germany the first encyclopedia modeled on Diderot's, by Köster and Roos, only reached Kinol (23 vols., Frankfort, 1778-1804); the next attempt, however, made on a large scale by Ersch and Gruber, proved a success. This is considered the most scientific German encyclopedia, "Allgemeine Encyklopdie der Wissenschaften und Künste", begun by Professor Johann Samuel Ersch in 1813 and continued by Professors Hufeland, Gruber, Meier, Brockhaus, Muller, and Hoffmann. The work is divided into three sections: Section I, A to G, 99 vols. (1818-82); Section II, H to N, 43 vols. (1827-90); Section III, O to Z, 25 vols. (1830-50). Equally ambitious in scope is the "Oekonomisch-technolog. Encykl." (242 vols., Berlin, 1773-1858), planned by Krünitz as a dictionary of economics and technology, but gradually enlarged by his successors Flörke, Korth, and C. O. Hoffmann into a general encyclopedia. Outside of the encyclopedia of Ersch and Gruber, the most ambitious encyclopedic work of the nineteenth century, the model of encyclopedic presentation, is the Brockhaus "Konversationslexikon", which took its name from Hübner, and from Bayle's "Dictionnaire" its arrangement and plan of presenting the results of scientific research and discovery in a popular form. Hübner gave as the reason for naming his work "Reales-Staats-Zeitungs-und Konversations-Lexikon" the fact that "it was to contain no professorial learning but all items of refined learning needed in daily intercourse with educated people". As it was printed chiefly to satisfy people of a curious turn of mind, it was confined principally to geography, while history was excluded as a special science. The first encyclopedia according to modern ideas was begun by Löbel in 1796 (6 vols., Amsterdam, 1808; 2 supplementary vols., 1810). In 1800 the publishing rights were acquired by Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus; the firm of Brockhaus completely altered the original plan and is still engaged on the work (14th ed., 1901—abridged ed., 2 vols., 4th ed., 1888). Constructed on the same lines as the encyclopedia of Brockhaus is Pierer's" Universallexikon" (26 vols., 1824-36; 7th ed., 12 vols., 1888-93), to which were added the Pierer "Jahrbücher der Wissenschaften, Künste und Gewerbe" (1865-73); similar works are Meyer's "Konversations-Lexikon" (37 vols., Leipzig, 1840-52; 6th ed., 20 vols., 1902; 7th ed., abridged, 6 vols., 1907) and Spamer's "Illustriertes Konversationslexikon" (8 vols., 1869-79; 2 supplementary vols., 1879-82; 2nd ed., 1884-91). These works were inspired by a superficial rationalism, if not by conscious hostility to everything Catholic. Early attempts were made to counteract this propaganda of religious indifferentism by the publication of encyclopedias from the Catholic point of view, such as the "Allgemeine Realencyklopädie oder Konversations-Lexikon für das katholische Deutschland" (13 vols., 1846-49; 4th ed., 1880-90); and Herder's "Konversationslexikon" (5 vols., Freiburg, 1853-57); neither proved a thorough success. The third edition of the latter (8 vols., 1901-08), through its preservation of Catholic interests, by its impartiality, thoroughness, and comprehensiveness, gained general approval.
Encyclopedias have since been compiled in all civilized countries. In France were published the "Encyclopédie des gens du monde" (22 vols., 1833-45); "Encyclopedie du XIX siècle" (75 vols., 1837-59; 3rd ed., 1867-72; continued as "Annuaire encyc."); "Encyclopédie moderne" (1846-51; new ed., 30 vols., 12 suppl. vols., atlas, 2 vols., 1856-62); "Dictionnaire de la conversation et de la lecture" (16 vols., 1851-58); "La Grande Encyclopédie", compiled by Bertholet, Derenbourg, and others (31 vols., 1885-1903); "Dict. univ.", ed. Larousse (17 vols., 1865-90; new ed., 1895); "Nouveau Larousse illustré", ed. Claude Augé (1898-1904); Larousse, "Dict. complet illustré" (129th ed., 1903). The chief Spanish encyclopedias are "Enciclopedia modern", ed. Mellados (34 vols., 3 vols. of charts, Madrid, 1848-51); "Diccionario encic. Hispano-Americano", ed. Montaner y Simon (25 vols., Barcelona, 1887-99); and the "Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeoamericana" (Barcelona, 1907-), edited along Catholic lines; Portugal: "Diccionario popular hist. geogr. mytholog. biograph" (16 vols., Lisbon, 1876-90); "Diccionario universal portuguez", ed. Costa; "Enciclopedia portugueza illustrada", ed. Lemos (254 nos. to 1903). Italy: "Nuova Encic. popolare italiana" (14 vols., Turin, 1841-51; 6th ed., 25 vols., 1875-89; suppl., 1889-99); "Enciclopedia popolare economica", ed. Berri (Milan, 1871); "Dizionario universale di scienze, lettere ed arti", ed. Lessona and Valle (Milan, 1874-1883); "Piccola Enciclopedia" (Milan, 1891). Rumania: "Enciclop. Romans" (3 vols., Hermannstadt, 1896-1903). England: "Encyclopaedia Britannica" (1771; 9th ed., 24 vols. and index, 1875-89, suppl., 11 vols., index and atlas, 1902-03); "New Encyclopaedia" of Rees (45 vols., London, 1802-20); "Encyclopaedia Metropolitana", ed. Smedley (30 vols., 1818-45); "English Cyclopedia", ed. Knight (27 vols., 4 suppl., London, 1854-73); "Chambers's Encyclopaedia" (10 vols., London, 1860-68; new ed., 1901); "Encyclopaedic Dictionary", ed. Hunter (7 vols., London, New York, 1879-88). United States: "The American Cyclopaedia" (16 vols., New York, 1858-63; new ed., 1873-76); "Deutsch-Amerikanisches Konversations-Lex.", ed. Schem (New York, 1870-74); "Johnson's New Universal Encyc." (4 vols., New York, 1874-8; new ed., 8 vols., 1893-5); "The Encyclopedia Americana" (New York, 1903-06); "The New International Encyclopaedia" (17 vols., New York, 1902-04); "The Jewish Encyclopedia" (1906-). The Netherlands: "Nieuwenhuis' Woordenboek van kunsten en wetenschapen" (Leyden, 1851-68); "De algemeene Nederlandsche Encyclopedie" (15 vols., Zutphen, 1865-68); "Geïllustreerde Encyclopaedie", ed. Winkler Prins (15 vols., 1868-82); "Woordenboek voor kennis en kunst", ed. Sijthoff (Leyden, 1891). Denmark and other northern countries: "Nordisk Konversationsleksikon", ed. Mollerup (3rd ed., Copenhagen, 1883-94); "Store illustrerede Konversationsleksikon", ed. Blangstrup (12 vols., Copenhagen, 1891-1901); "Norsk haandbog", ed. Johnsen (1879-88); "Nordisk Familjebog" (Stockholm, 1879-94); "Konversationsleksikon", ed. Meijer (1889-94). Russia: "Entciklopedicheskij Slovar", ed. Brockhaus and Efron (35 vols., St. Petersburg, 1890-1902); "Bolj≈°aja Enciklopedija", ed. Jushakow (St. Petersburg. 1899). Poland: "Encjklopedya powszechna", ed. Orgelbrand (28 vols., Warsaw, 1859-68), Sikorski (Warsaw, 1890). Bohemia: "Slovnik Naucny", ed. Kober (12 vols., Prague, 1860-87); "Ottuv Slovnik Naucny, ed. Otto (17 vols., Prague, 1888-1901). Hungary: "Pallas Nagy Lexikona" (16 vols., Budapest, 1893-97; suppl., 1900); an Arabian encyclopedia was discontinued when it reached the ninth volume (Beirut, 1876-87).
In addition to these works, which were prepared for general reference, technical encyclopedias reached great perfection during the nineteenth century. There is hardly a science or department of knowledge which is not fully covered in some work of this kind. In the province of general theology Migne has published in his "Encycl. theologique" (Paris, 1844-75), a series of over 100 special lexicons treating the different branches of theology: dogmas, heresies, liturgy, symbolism, archaeology, councils, cardinals, etc. Another comprehensive encyclopedia, dealing especially with theology and church history, is the "Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica" of Gaetano Moroni (103 vols., 6 index vols., Venice, 1840-79). The "Handlexikon der kath. Theologie", ed. Schaffer (3 vols., from A to Reservationen, Ratisbon, 1881-91) and Aschbach's "Kirchenlexikon" (4 vols., 1846-51) remained unfinished. The most important Catholic encyclopedia of Germany is Wetzer and Welte's "Kirchenlexikon" (13 vols., Freiburg, 1847-60; 2nd ed., 1880-91; index vol., 1903). A short but comprehensive encyclopedia is Buchberger's "Kirchliches Handlexikon" (Munich, 1907-). Similar undertakings are "Dictionnaire de theologie catholique", ed. Vacant and Mangenot (Paris, 1903-) and THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, ed. Herbermann, Pace, Pallen, Shahan, and Wynne (15 vols., New York, 1906-), which deals with the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Church, and whatever is connected with the interests of the Church. Among distinctively Protestant encyclopedias may be mentioned: "Lexikon für Theologie and Kirchenwesen", ed. H. Holtzmann and Zöpffel (2nd ed., Brunswick, 1888); Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie and Kirche", ed. Herzog (21 vols., 1853-68; 3rd ed., 21 vols., ed. Hauck, 1896-1908; tr. New York, 1908-); "Die Religion in Geschichte and Gegenwart", ed. Schiele (5 vols., Tübingen, 1909-), on the same plan as Buchberger's "Handlexikon". There are a large number of Biblical dictionaries; the earliest is the "Grand dictionnaire de la Bible ou explication litterale et historique de tous les mots propres du vieux et nouveau Test.", ed. Richard Simon (Lyons, 1693). Soon after appeared Calmet's "Dict. historique, critique, chronologique, geographique et littéral de la Bible" (Paris, 1719). A work which is still useful is the "Biblisches Realwörterbuch", ed. G. B. Winers (2 vols., 3rd ed., 1847-48). D. Schenkel's "Bibellexikon" is pronouncedly rationalistic; the Jewish point of view is found in Hamburger's "Realencyklopädie für Bibel and Talmud" (2 vols., 4 suppl. vols.; new ed., 1896-97); "The Jewish Encyclopedia", ed. Singer (New York, 1906-). Among Protestant Biblical dictionaries are the "Handwörterbuch des biblischen Altertums", ed. Riehm and Bäthgen (2 vols., Bielefeld, 1893-94); "Kurzes Bibelwörterbuch", ed. H. Guthe (1903); "Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature", ed. Kitto (3rd ed., ed. Alexander, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1862-65); "Dictionary of the Bible", ed. Smith (London, 1860-63, 3 vols.; 2nd ed., Smith and Fuller, 1893); "Dictionary of the Bible", ed. Hastings (4 vols., Edinburgh, 1898-1902, suppl. vol., 1904); the well-known rationalistic "Encyclopaedia biblica", ed. Cheyne and Black (4 vols.; London, 1899-1903). There are only two Catholic Biblical encyclopedias: Vigouroux, "Dictionnaire de la bible contenant tous les noms de personnes, de lieux, de plantes, d'animaux mentionnes dans les s. Ecritures" (Paris, 1895-), and the "Lexicon biblicum" of M. Hagen (4 vols., Paris, 1905-). The following encyclopedias deal with Christian archaeology: "Dictionnaire des antiquites chretiennes", ed. Martigny (2nd ed., Paris, 1877); "Dictionary of Christian Antiquities", ed. Smith and Cheetham (London, 1875); Kraus, "Real-Encyklopadie der christlichen Alterthümer" (2 vols., Freiburg im Br., 1882-86); Cabrol, "Dictionnaire d'archeologie chretienne et de liturgie" (Paris, 1907-). Hagiography and the veneration of relics, besides the volume in Migne's "Encyclopedie theologique", "Heiligenlexikon", ed. Stadler and Heim (5 vols., 1858-82); on church music: "Lexikon der kirchlichen Tonkunst", ed. Kornmüller (2nd ed., 2 vols., Ratisbon, 1891-95).
Medicine is treated in "Medizinisch-chirurgische Encyk.", ed. Prosch and Ploss (4 vols., Leipzig, 1867); "Realencyklop. der gesamten Heilkunde", ed. Eulenburg (3rd ed., Vienna, 1893); "Handwörterbuch der gesamten Medizin" (2nd ed., Stuttgart, 1899-1900). Jurisprudence and sociology: "Encyklopädie der Rechtswissenschaft", ed. F. v. Holtzendorff (1870-73; 6th ed., 1903-); "Encykl. der Rechtswissenschaft", ed. Birkmeyer (Berlin, 1901); "Staats- and Gesellschafts-Lex.", ed. H. Wagener (26 vols., Berlin, 1859-68); "Staatslex.", ed. Rotteck and Welcker (15 vols., Altona, 1835-44; 3rd ed. 14 vols., 1856-66); the Catholic "Staats-Lexikon" of the Görres Society, ed. Bruder (5 vols., Freiburg im Br., 1889-97; 4th ed., ed. Bachem,1908-); "Deutsches Staatswörterbuch", ed. Bluntschli (2 vols., 1857-70; new ed., 3 vols., 1869-74); "Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften", ed. Conrad, Elster, Lexis, and Loening (6 vols., 2 suppl. vols., 1889-98); "Nouveau dict. d'economie politique", ed. Fay and Chailley (2 vols., Paris, 1891-92); "Wörterbuch der Volkswirtschaft", ed. Elster (2 vols., 1808; 2nd ed., 1907); "Handwörterbuch der Schweizer Volkswirtschaft", ed. Reichesberg (1901-); "Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and Political History of the United States", ed. Lalor (Chicago, 1881); "Handwörterbuch der gesamten Militärwissenschaften", ed. Poten (Bielefeld, 1877-80). Philosophy: "Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques", ed. Frank (3rd ed., 1885). Natural science: "Encyklopadie der Naturwissenschaften" (Breslau, 1879-); "Encyclopedic d'histoire naturelle", ed. Chenu (22 vols. of text, 9 vols. of illustrations, Paris, 1850-61). Antiquity: "Realencyk. der klass. Altertumswissenschaft", ed. Pauly (6 vols., Stuttgart, 1842-66; ed. Wissowa, 1894-); "Reallexikon des klassischen Altertums", ed. Lübker (1853—; 7th ed., 1890); "Reallexicon der deutschen Altertümer", ed. Götzinger (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1885). History and biography: "Encyklopädie der neuern Gesch.", ed. Herbst (5 vols., Gotha, 1880-90); "Allgemeine deutsche Biographie" (47 vols., 1875-1903; suppl., 1905-), and, supplementary, Bettelheim's "Jahrbuch für Biographie and Necrologie" (1903-); "Dictionnaire encyclopedique d'histoire, de biographie, de mythologie et de geographie", ed. Gregoire (Paris, 1894); "Dictionnaire des contemporains", ed. Vapereau (Paris, 1858; 6th ed., 1893; suppl., 1895); "Dictionnaire des litterateurs", ed. Vapereau (1876; 2nd ed., 1884); "Dictionary of National Biography" (63 vols., London, 1863-1903; new ed., 1908); "Nouvelle biographie generale" (46 vols., Paris, 1855-66); "Dizionario biografico degli scrittori contemporanei", ed. de Gubernatis (3 vols., Florence, 1890-91); "Men and Women" (5th ed., 1899); "Who's Who" (1857-); "Who's Who in America" (1899-); "Werist's?", ed. Degener (1905-). "The Catholic Who's Who" (London, 2nd ed., 1909). Geography: "Geographisch-statistisches Lexikon", ed. Ritter (2 vols., 1835; 8th ed., 1895); "Dictionnaire universelle d'histoire et de geographie", ed. Bouillet (Paris, 1842; 32nd ed., 1901; "Nouveau dictionnaire de geographic universelle", ed. Vivien de Saint-Martin (7 vols. and suppl., 1879-97); "General Dictionary of Geography", ed. Johnston (Edinburgh, 1877); "Dizionario universale di geografia e storia", ed. Strafforello and Grimaldi-Costa (Milan, 1873-77, suppl., 1888). Pedagogy: "Encyk. des ges. Erziehungs- and Unterrichtswesens", ed. K. A. Schmid (10 vols., 1857-78; 2nd ed., Gotha, 1876-88); "Katholische Encyk. für Pädagogik" (Freiburg im Br., 1909-); "Cyclopaedia of Education", ed. Kiddie and Schem (New York, 1877). Mathematics: "Encyklopädie der mathematischen Wissenschaften", ed. Burkhardt and Meyer. Chemistry: "Handwörterbuch der Chemie", ed. Liebig and Poggendorff (1836-64; new ed., 1870). Art and music: "Encyclopedie historique et archeologique des beaux-arts plastiques", ed. Demmin (3 vols., Paris, 1865-70); "Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures and Mines", ed. Ure (4th ed., London, 1875-78); Gwilt, "Encyclopaedia of Architecture (new ed., London, 1894); "Dict. raisonne de l'architecture francaise", ed. Viollet-le-Duc (10 vols., and suppl., Paris, 1875-89); "Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon" ed. Füssli (1763-77); "Neues algemeines Künstlerlexikon", ed. Nagler (22 vols., Munich, 1835-52); "Allgemeines Künstlerlex.", ed. Muller and Singer (3rd ed., 5 vols., 1895-1901; suppl. 1906); Allgemeines Künstlerlex.", ed. Seubert (3 vols., Frankfort, 1879); "Künsterlexikon", ed. Thieme (Leipzig, 1907-); "Musikalisches Konversations-Lexikon", ed. Mendel and Reissmann (2 vols. and suppl., Berlin, 1870-83); "Musik-Lexikon", ed. Riemann (4th ed., 1894); "Biographic universelle des musiciens", ed. Fetis and Pougin (2nd ed., 8 vols., 1860-65; 2 suppl. vols., 1878-81); "Dictionary of Music", ed. Grove (4 vols. and suppl., London, 1878-89; 2nd ed., 1905-); "Quellen-Lexikon für Musik", ed. Eitner (10 vols., 1900).
Besides these general encyclopedias dealing with different arts and sciences, there are also special technical dictionaries devoted to departments of each science, often treating recondite subjects, but in the hands of scholars facilitating acquaintance with the details of these sciences.