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Diocese of Treviso
Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy). The capital is surrounded by the River Sile; its environs are the favourite summer resort of the Venetian nobility.
The cathedral, erected in 1141, was transformed in 1485 by Tullio and Pietro Lombardo, and modernized in 1758 with five cupolas; the entrance portal dates from 1835. It contains sculptures by the brothers Bregno and by Antonio Lombardo; paintings by Paris Bourdone, Titian, and Francesco di Dominicis; frescoes by Seitz, Pordenone, etc.; and the tombs of Canon Malchiostro and the Bishop Zanetti. The Church of S. Nicolò, designed in Gothic style by Fra Nicolo da Smola, was erected by Benedict XI, who presented it to the Dominicans. It now belongs to the seminary which occupies the ancient convent of Santa Maria Maddalena; it has paintings by Paolo Veronese.
Among the civil buildings is the Palazzo dei Trecento (1184) containing the Galleria Comunale with pictures by Lotto, Tintoretto, Bordone, Bellini. Natives of Treviso were: the painters Paris Bordone, Pier Maria and Girolamo Pennacchi; the historian Odorigo Rinaldi (Raynaldus), continuator of Baronius; the jurist Bartolommeo Zuccati; the Carmelite Francesco Turchi, mathematician and architect; and the poet Venantius Fortunatus.
Tarvisium was an ancient city of the Veneti, which became Roman in 183 B.C. and was a stronghold of the Goths in the Gothic war. Through the intercession of Bishop Felix the city was spared during the Lombard invasion (569) and became the seat of a duchy. Charlemagne made it a marquisate, extending from Belluno to Ceneda, and from the Adige to the Tagliamento. In 922 Treviso, which was under episcopal jurisdiction, was sacked by the Hungarians. In 1014 it was organized as a commune ruled by consuls, with a council of three hundred citizens. A member of the Lombard league, it later made peace with Barbarossa, who respected its constitution, but appointed as podesta (1173) Ezzellino il Monaco. He was expelled, and thereafter the Ezzelini and Da Canino took turns in the office. Notwithstanding a war with Padua, Belluno, and Feltre, the city flourished through its riches, commerce, and the spirit of its inhabitants. Released from the tyranny of Ezzelino IV (1231-50), Treviso was an independent commune until Emperor Henry VII in 1309 made Riccardo da Canino imperial vicar. He was treacherously slain and succeeded by his son Guecello, against whom a conspiracy was formed. In 1314-18 Can Grande della Scala of Verona annexed Treviso to his state, but the inhabitants revolted to Frederick the Fair of Austria, and afterwards to Louis the Bavarian. Meanwhile, Guecello Tempesta was proclaimed ruler and liberator of the city (1328), but after four years he induced the citizens to recognize the supremacy of Can Grande. Becoming involved in war with Venice, Treviso was ceded to that city (1338), captured by Leopold of Austria (1383), sold to the Carrar, lords of Padua, taken by Gian Galezzo Visconti, Duke of Milan (1404), and finally returned to Venice. In 1848 the papal troops at Treviso, commanded by Ferrari, sustained a siege by the Austrians. The university, established at Treviso in 1317 by Frederick the Fair, did not flourish. The republic of Venice maintained the school until the conquest of Padua (1405), with its great university, resulted in closing the one at Treviso.
Treviso probably received the Gospel from Aquileia. The first bishop of certain date was Jucundus, who in 421 took part in the consecration of the church of the Rialto in Venice. The bishops of Treviso who participated in the schism of the Three Chapters were: Felix (see above); Rusticus, present at the Council of Murano (588); and Felix II, who signed the petition to the Emperor Maurice. In 905 Bishop Adelbert received from King Berengar the temporal jurisdiction of the city, which extended to Rozo (969- 1001) and Rolando who adhered to the schism of Clement III. Bishop Tiso (1212-45) suffered from the tyranny of Ezzelino, and Alberto Ricco, O. M. (1255), was imprisoned for preaching against him. Successive bishops were: Loto Gambacurta (1394), exiled by the Florentines from his archbishopric of Pisa; Giovanni Benedetti, O. P. (1418), who reformed many convents of his order and concubinary priests; Ludovico Barbo (1437), Abbot of S. Giustina of Padua, and reformer of the Benedictine order; Ermolao Barbaro (1443), a learned and zealous prelate; Cardinal Pietro Riario, O. M. (1471); Fra Giovanni Dacri (1478), formerly general of the Franciscans, who restored the cathedral and reorganized the revenues of the bishopric, leaving many pious foundations; Nicolò Franco (1486), papal nuncio in various countries; Francesco Cornaro (1577), who founded a seminary, introduced the reforms of the Council of Trent, resigned his see, and was created cardinal; Gian Antonio Lupo (1646), who conflicted with his canons; Giambattista Saniedo (1684), zealous and beneficent pastor; Fortunato Morosini (1710), who enlarged the Seminary; Bernardino Marini (1788-1817), a canon of the Lateran, present at the Council of Paris, 1811, who united the abbey nullius of Novisa with the See of Treviso; and Giuseppe Giapelli, appointed by the Austrian Government, but not recognized by the Holy See, so that the diocese remained in turmoil until the death of the candidate.
In 1818 Treviso passed from the metropolitan jurisdiction of Aquileia (Udine) to that of Venice. Bishop Giuseppe Grasser (1822) healed the evils caused by the interregnum, Bishop Antonio Farina (1890) conferred sacred orders on Giuseppe Sarto, now Pius X. United with Treviso is the ancient Diocese of Asolo, the bishops of which are unknown from 587 (Agnellus) until 1049 (Ugo), and that of Heraclea (Città Nova), a city founded in the times of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, as a refuge for the inhabitants of Opitergium (Oderzo), who with their bishop (Magnus) had been exiled by the Lombards. Twenty-six bishops are known, from 814 until the union of the see with Treviso, 1440. The Diocese of Treviso has 215 parishes with 386 secular and 30 regular clergy, 5 monasteries, 27 convents, 2 educational institutions for boys, five for girls, and 414,330 souls.
CAPPELLETTI, Le Chiese d'Italia, X; Collectio Historicorum de Marchia Trevisana (Venice, 1636); VERCI, Storia della Marchia Trivigiana (Venice, 1789); RIGAMONTI, Descrizione delle pitture piu celebri nelle chiese di Treviso (Treviso, 1744); RICCATI, Stato antico e moderno della citta di Asolo (Pesaro, 1763); SEMENZI, Treviso e la sua prorincia (Treviso, 1862); PICCOTTI, I Caminesi e la loro signoria in Treviso dal 1283 al 1312 (Leghorn, 1904).