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(RODA DUCIS, also Roda, Closterroda or Hertogenrade).
Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands. It became an Augustinian abbey in 1104 under Ven. Ailbertus, a priest, son of Ammoricus, a nobleman of Antoing, Flanders. Ailbertus is said to have been guided by a vision towards this chosen spot, which was in the domain of Count Adelbert of Saffenberch, who, before Bishop Othert of Liège, turned over the property destined for abbey and church in 1108. Ailbertus was the first abbot (1104-11). Later he went to France where he founded the Abbey of Clairfontaine. Desiring once more to see Rolduc, he died on the way, at Sechtem, near Bonn, 19 Sep., 1122 (Acta SS.). Thirty-eight abbots succeeded Ailbertus, the last one being Peter Joseph Chaineux (1779-1800). The abbey acquired many possessions in the Netherlands, and became the last resting-place of the Dukes of Limburg. It possesses the famous "Catalogue Librorum", made A.D. 1230, containing one hundred and forty theological and eighty-six philosophical and classical works. The beautiful crypt, built by Ailbertus, was blessed 13 Dec., 1106, and in 1108 the church was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and St Gabriel. In 1122 Pope Calixtus II confirmed by a Bull, preserved in the archives of Rolduc, the donation of the property. The church, completed in 1209, was then solemnly dedicated by Philip, Bishop of Ratzeburg. Dr. R. Corten completed the restoration of the churoh in 1893, and transferred the relics of Ven. Ailbertus into a richly sculptured sarcophagus in the crypt, 1897. The church possesses a particle of the Holy Cross, five inches long, reputed to be authentic and miraculous (Archives of Rolduc, by Abbot Mathias Amezaga); also the body of St. Daphne, virgin and martyr, brought over from the Catacombs of Praetextatus in 1847. Rolduc became the seminary of Liège in 1831, under Right Rev. Cornelius Van Bommel, and the little seminary of Roermond, and academy in 1841. The present institution has an attendance of 420 pupils.
HEYENDAL, Annales Rodenses usque ad annum 1700; Diarium rerum memorabilium abbatiae Rodensis in the archives of Aix-la-Chapelle; Acta SS.; HABETS, Geschiedenis van het Bisdom Roermond, III (1875-92); ERNST, Histoire du Limbourg, (Liège, 1837-52); DARIS, Notice Historique sur les eglises du diocese de Liège, XV (Liège, 1894); NEUJEAN, Notice historique sur l'abbaye de Rolduc (Aix-la-Chapelle, 1868); HELYOT, Histoire des ordres monastiques, religieux et militaires, II (Paris, 1714-19); CUYPERS, Revue de l'art chretien (1892); LENNARTZ, Die Augustiner Abtei Klosterrath; KERSTEN, Journal Historique et Litteraire, XIV (Liège); CORTEN, Rolduc in Woord en Beeld (Utrecht, 1902).